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une ch 20

tricarboxyclic acid cycle

TCA intermediates/compounds: Our City Is Kept Safe and Sound From Malice Oxalacetate Citrate Isocitrate alpha-Ketoglutamate Succinyl-CoA Succinate Fumarate Malate
Enzymes involved in cycle: CAIK Sounds So Fucking Mint. Citrate synthase Aconitase Iso-citrate dehydrogenase Alpha-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase Succinyl-coA synthetase Succinate dehydrogenase Fumerase Malate dehydrogenase
Name the four dehydrogenase enzymes of the TCA cycle. Which are control enzymes? Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase, Malate dehydrogenase are all control enzymes. The other is succinate dehydrogenase
Isocitrate dehydrogenase Isocitrate + NAD+ --> a-ketoglutarate, NADH + H+ + CO2
Alphaketogluterate dehydrogenase: a-ketoglutarate + NAD+ + CoASH --> Succinyl-CoA + NADH + H+ + CO2
Succinate dehydrogenase: Succinate + FAD <--> Fumarate + FADH2
Malate dehydrogenase: Malate + NAD+ <--> Oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
Name the 5 cofactors of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction. Never Cared For Licking Those Netherregions Prinkly Red Naked Tasty NAD, CoASH, FAd, Lipoate, TPP, Niacin, Pantothenate, Riboflavin, None, Thiamine
Name five pathways which use TCA cycle intermediates as substrates. What is the effect of these pathways on the TCA cycle? All Flower Girls Have Brains 1. Amino acid synth(uses Oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate) 2. Fatty acid synth(uses Citrate) 3. Gluconeogenesis (uses Malate) 4. Heme synth(uses Succinyl CoA) 5. Brain neurotransmitter synth (uses alpha-ketoglutarate)
how is the rate of the TCA cycle linked to muscle contraction and utilization of ATP? when you flex- atp dec, adp/amp inc.inc atp stimulates isocitrate dh and alphaketo dh in TCA to make NADH.TCA cycle stimulated by dec NADH/NAD ratio2provide more NADH/FAD2H. messengers from ETC tell ATP about atp rate of use. faster TCA=more ATP4muscles.
how does the calcium concentration affect the TCA cycle? it is the feed forward activator for two control enzymes (isocitrate dh and alphak dh) and more NAD converted to NADH
when brain uses energy, explain what happens to all of the ratios... ATP/ADP ratio dec, inc in ADP (inhibits PDC kinase), NADH/ NAD ratio dec, ACOA inc, inc CA (more pyruvate converted to aCoA by PDC resulting in more ATP being produced by TCA)
explain how muscle contraction is related to rate of pyruvate dh reaction inc Ca2+ -> activates PDC phosphatase->dephosphorylates PDC putting it into active form-> active PDC will convert pyruvate to ACoA for use in TCA cycle-> will make ATP for muscle contraction-
explain what activates PDC and (in)activates it inc NADH, inc aCOa due to PDC kinase phosphorylation. inc ADP, inc pyruvate= pdc phosphatase dephosphorylates= inc pdc
which vitamins would you prescribe to be positive that the pyruvate dehydrogenase and the pyruvate carboxylase reactions would have an adequate amount of cofactors? *Pyruvate Carboxylase: Biotin *Pyruvate Dehydrogenase: Riboflavin, Thiamine, Pantothenate, and Niacin (lipoate is synthesized in body; no vitamin required)
how does calcium affect the tca cycle? calcium is a feed foward activator of the two control enzymes. as calcium inc, more NAD converted to NADH by isocitrate DH and alphaK DH
what are the effects of inc NADH and A CoA on PDC? inc NADH and ACOA will activate pdc kinase phosphorylation and dec PDC
what are the effects of inc adp and pyruvate on the pdc? inc adp and inc pyruvate will allow for pdc phosphate to dephosphorylate and inc pdc
what is the effect of calcium on PDC? inc calcium leads to inc PDC phosphatase and then PDC is active.
additional pies of calcium tase me nary acrid decreases kiwi's inc adp and pyruvate and calcium activate pdc phosphatase (and inc adp inhibits pdc kinase) whereas inc nadh and inc acoa inc pdc kinase and pdc is deactivated
cal and aldy activates dh to convert and terry sees amt goes down so shes speeds up calcium activates iso dh and alphakg dh to convert nad to nadh. tca cycle is stimulated by low nadh/nad ratio
Created by: carolanimal