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Protein Synthesis

Which step is the rate limiitng step? Initiation
What is the 80S structure of the Eukaryotic ribosome composed of? The 60S subunit and the 40S subunit
What are polysomes? Many ribosomes making protein from one mRNA at the same time
What is at the 3' end of tRNA? A CCA sequence where the amino acid will be covalently attached
What does aminoacyl synthases do? It activates the amino acid and catalyzes the covalent attachmen of the amino acid to the tRNA
What site does the amino acids bind to on tRNA during elongation? Initiation? The A site. Initiation it binds to the P site
What is transloaction and does it require energy? Results in the shift of the ribosome in respect to the message and requires GTP
What are the chaperones and what do they do? The chaperones are the Hsp(heat shock proteins) and they induce transcription. Also prevents misfolding of proteins.
How does heme regulate translation of globin? The heme can regulate a kinase that in trun phosphorylates an important initiation factor EIF2. It controls the rate of globin syntheses and heme can match its rate of synthesis to globin
How is heat shock proteins related to cancer? An excess of hsp can promote the growth of a tumor
What binds to the signal sequence to causes a protein to pause in translation? SRP will recognize the signal sequence and cause it to pause in translation.
After a protein is paused in translation due to SRP where does it go? SRP will take it to the cytosolic side of the ER and position it next to a channel called translocon
What are Bip (binding proteins)? Binding proteins are part of the family of Hsp70 and it prevents misfolding during translation.
What important rRNA component does the 60S subunit have? 28s rRNA has the enzymatic activity that is responsible for peptide bond formation.
How are proteins targeted where to go? Proteins get directed to where they need to go with the information in the primary sequence
What enzyme causes a disulfide formation in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? The enzyme disulfide isomerase
If there is no intiation sequence at the N terminus where could it be? There can be an internal intial sequence



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