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Kaplan DAT Biology


Metabolism the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body.
Catabolic reactions break down large chemicals and release energy
Anabolic reactions build up large chemicals and require energy
Ingestion the acquisition of food and other raw materials.
Digestion the process of converting food into a usable soluble form so that it can pass through membranes in the digestive tract and enter the body.
Absorption the passage of nutrient molecules through the lining of the digestive tract into the body proper. Absorbed molecules pass through cells lining the digestive tract by diffusion or active transport.
Transport the circulation of essential compounds required to nourish the tissues, and the removal of waste products from the tissues.
Assimilation the building up of new tissues from digested food materials.
Respiration the consumption of oxygen by the body. Cells use oxygen to convert glucose into ATP, a ready source of energy for cellular activities.
Excretion the removal of waste products (such as carbon dioxide, water, and urea) produced during metabolic processes like respiration and assimilation.
Synthesis the creation of complex molecules from simple ones (anabolism).
Regulation the control of physiological activities.
Homeostasis The body's metabolism functions to maintain its internal environment in a changing external environment. Includes regulation by hormones and the nervous system
Irritability the ability to respond to a stimulus and is part of regulation.
Growth an increase in size due to synthesis of new materials.
Photosynthesis the process by which plants convert CO2 and H2O into carbohydrates.
Reproduction the generation of additional individuals of a species.
1. Monosaccharide Monosaccharides like glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose are single sugar subunits.
2. Disaccharide Disaccharides like maltose and sucrose are composed of two monosaccharide subunits joined by dehydration synthesis, involves loss of water molecule.
3. Polysaccharide Polysaccharides are polymers or chains of repeating monosaccharide subunits. Glycogen and starch are polysaccharides. Cellulose is a polysaccharide that serves a structural role in plants. These polysaccharides are insoluble in water.
4. Dehydration and Hydrolysis Polysaccharides are formed by removing water (dehydration). By adding water large polymers can be broken down into smaller subunits in a process called hydrolysis.
Lipids (Fats and Oils) A lipid consists of 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone.
a. Phospholipids contain glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and nitrogen containing alcohol, lecithin, and cephalin.
b. Waxes esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols. They are found as protective coatings on skin, fur, leaves of higher plants, and on the exoskeleton of many insects, lanolin.
c. Steroids All steroids have three fused cyclohexane rings and one fused cyclopentane ring. They include cholesterol, the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen, and corticosteroids.
d. Carotenoids These are fatty acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying six-membered carbon rings at each end. These compounds are the pigments which produce red, yellow, orange, and brown colors in plants and animals.
e. Porphyrins also called tetrapyrroles, contain four joined pyrrole rings. They are often complexed with a metal.
Proteins Proteins are composed of C, H, O, and N but also contain P and S. Polymers of amino acids.
simple proteins these are composed entirely of amino acids
albumins and globulins these are primarily globular in nature. they are functional proteins that act as carriers or enzymes.
scleroproteins these are fibrous in nature and act as structural proteins.
conjugated proteins these contain a simple protein portion, plus at least one nonprotein fraction.
lipoproteins protein bound to lipid
mucoproteins protein bound to carbohydrate
chromoproteins protein bound to pigmented molecules
metalloproteins protein complexed around a metal ion
nucleoproteins protein containing histone or protamine bound to nucleic acids
hormones these are proteins that function as chemical messenger secreted into the circulation. Insulin and ACTH are protein hormones.
enzymes these are biological catalysts that act by increasing the rate of chemical reactions important for biological functions
structural proteins these contribute to the physical support of a cell or tissue. they may be extracellular or intracellular
transport proteins these are carriers of important materials.
antibodies these bind to foreign particle (antigens), including disease-causing organisms that have entered the body
Created by: c13luong


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