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Cold War/Civil Right

Truman Doctrin 1947 Harry Truman's statement that the US would help countries fighting against communism
Marshall Plan Also called the European Recovery Program, this was a US plan to give economic aid to European countries to rebuild their economies after WWII
North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO: an alliance formed in 1949 between the US and other countries of Western Eurpoe who pledged to help one another in case of attack
McCarthyism A fear of communism/communists that spread through the US in the early 1950's. Senator Joseph McCarthy began hearings before the US Senate accusing some Americans of being communists and questioning their patriotism.
Korean War 1950 - 1953 Communist N. Korean troops invaded S. Korea to begin the war, fights raged for 3 years. Fighting stopped with an armistice (temporary suspension of hostilities), naming the 38th parallel the division between North & South. First use of United Nations
Sputnik I The worlds 1st satellite sent up by the Soviet Union, this even led the way for the space race that was a part of the Cold War
Vietnam War US involvement began in 1954 & escalated to maximum strength in 1960's & early 1970's. Fighting based on idea of containment of communism to prevent the domino theory that communism must be stopped before it continued to spread throughout the world.
Civil Rights Movement 1950's & 1960's: An organized campaign by individuals and groups to extend basic civil and personal rights to minorities
Brown v. Board of Educations 1954 court case that overturned Plessy v Ferguson (1896) and began to change schools and public facilities from racially segregated to integrated.
Thurgood Marshall Successfully argued the case of Brown v Board of Education before the US Supreme Court and he later became the first African-American to be nominated and to serve on that court
Civil Rights Act of 1964 This law was part of the amssive civil rights legislation of the 1960's' It specifically banned racial discrimination in all public facilities and as a consideration for employment
Voting Rights Act of 1965 Put the voter registration process under Federal control and banned the use of restricitve practices to prevent people, particularly minorities, from registering and voting
Great Society President Lyndon B. Johnson's domestic policy & reform program in the 1960's. Included key Civil Rights legislation as well as education programs (Head Start) and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Medical programs (Medicare/Medicaid) as well.
Electricity Thomas Edison (who also invented phonograph and a motion picture machine)
Telephone Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876 and founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Co
Medical Vaccinations Polio vaccine was developed by Dr. Jonas Salk in the 1950's to combat the polio epidemic, this was a success in stopping this disease
Transportation Airplanes, cars, space shuttle, and so on
Improvement in the Standard of Living Electricity, telephones, TVs, refrigeration and air-conditioning, money and programs for education, computers, increasingly affordable and available technology as well as large numbers of consumer goods at affordable prices. Life expectancy keeps rising
Telegraph Patented by Samuel Morse in 1837, this was a way of sending messages ussing electric current and a special code called Morse Code
Petroleum-based Products Edwin Drake found oul in Pennsylvania in 1859. At Spindletop (near Beaumont) in 1901, huge deposits of oil were discovered. This led to refining of products such as gasoline, plastics, and chemicals and a boom for Texas
Computers Beginning in the 40's with the big main frames through development of personal computers and into the 21st century and hand-held technology
Communication Telephone, radio, TV, movies, computers, internet, cellular phones and satellite communication
Franklin D Roosevelt President of the US and a leader of the Allies in WWII, he died in April 1945, just weeks before the Allied Victory in Europe on May 7, 1945
Hitler Political and military leader of Germany in WWII. He had the title of Der Fuhrer and was responsible for the Holocaust, German aggression before WWII and Axis policites during the war
Stalin Communist leader of the Soviet Union during WWII, he used the instability in Europe after WWII to expand Soviet/Communist influence into Eastern Europe. This expanded the Cold War and the rivalry between the US and the Soviets
Churchill Prime Minister of Great Britain, he was a major leader for the Allies and for Britain in WWII. He coined the phrase "Iron Curtain" to refer to the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe in the post-WWII speech
Harry Truman Vice-President under Roosevelt and President of the US from 1945-1952, he inherited the responsibility of deciding the drop the first atomic bomb in August of 1945 against Japan. He also had the task of leading the US after WWII.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King encouraged non-violence to protest lack of civil rights/liberties. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act, and other Great Society legislation resulted in expanded rights for African-Americans. He was assasinated in April 1968
Rise of Dictators The increased influence of fascist dictators (Hitler/Germany and Mussolini/Italy) was one major cause of WWII
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, "a day that will live in infamy", when Japanese planes attacked the US Naval Base in Hawaii. This event brought the US into WWII
Multiple Fronts War WWII was fought in two major areas -Europe/North Afric and the Pacific. Each of these fronts was important to the Allied efforts to win the war. In Eurpoe, the main targets were Germany & Italy, in the Pacific the target was Japan
Holocaust Systematic persecution, relocation, and execution of over 10,000,000 people by the Nazi German Gov't. Jewish people throughout Germany were a major target. over 6,000,000 Jews were killed in work and death camps.
Battle of Midway A turning point in the Allied war effort in the Pacific. This important naval battle in 1942 stopped Japanese aggression and began a counter-offensive by the US to defeat the Japanese
D-Day (Invasion of Normandy) A turning point in the war in Europe. This battle (June 6, 1944) started with an attack by the Allies on the beaches of Normandy (Northern France) and launched the Allied plan that cause Germany to surrender in May of 1945
Atomic Bomb In response to Japanese refusal to surrender, the US dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 9, 1945, then on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The Japanese agreed to surrender terms on September 2, 1945 and WWII ended
Rationing A policy of limiting critical supplies to civilians during WWII. People in the US were given rationing stamps/books and could only buy limited amounts of such items as gasoline
Female Employment Rosie the Riveter & the slogan "We Can Do It" represented the influence of women in the workforce during WWII. The role of women outside the home changed as women went to work in factories, in wartime production efforts. Over 6 million women went to work
End of Depression The increased production brought about by gearing up for war and the employment of millions of men in the military (opening up jobs for women on the homefront). The improved US economy brought an end to the Great Depression
GI Bill This legislation provided money for veterans (of WWII) to go to college. Provisions of the GI Bill are still in effect for military veterans
Internment of Japanese-Americans During WWII in the US, Japanese-Americans were relocated/arrested & detained in camps in remote areas of the US. Most were from the West Coast, and were held until 1942. 110,000 Japanese-Americans lost their rights/freedom as citizens
Created by: NHSSS