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# une ch 4

### acidsbasesbuffers

Define pH. pH is the negative log of the concentration of hydrogen ions (such concentration expressed in moles per liter [mol/L]) in a solution. This determines the acidity of the solution.
Given any hydrogen ion concentration, determine the pH and vice versa pH = -log[H+],
The normal [H+] of blood is 40nM. Calculate the pH. pH = -log (H+)= -log 40 x 10-9
Recognize the acids produced by the body during metabolism and be able to state the predominant form at pH = 7.4 (ic or ate, ammonium or ammonia). 1.)H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid 2.)HNO3 Nitric Acid 3.)HCl Hydrochloric Acid
To find if bicarbonate or carbonic acid predominates at pH=7.4, use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Solve for the ratio of Bicarbonate to Carbonic Acid (pKa = 6.1): 7.4 = 6.1 + log ([Bicarbonate]/[Carbonic Acid])
Equation for its dissociation of a weak acid: HA = H+ + A- [HA]= weak acid concentration, [A-]= conjugate base concentration, [H+]= proton concentration
Be able to define the Ka for the acid. Ka=[H+][A-]/[HA] Ka: dissociation constant, ::[HA]= weak acid concentration, [A-]= conjugate base concentration, [H+]= proton concentration
Relationship between pKa and Ka pKa=-log(Ka)
Bicarbonate Buffer System equation: CO2 + H2O <---> H2CO3 <---> HCO3- + H+
The partial pressure of CO2 can be roughly converted to the concentration of Carbonic Acid in the bloodstream by doing what? multiplying [PaCO2] by .03. Example: (40 mm Hg CO2) X .03 = (1.2 milli moles Carbonic Acid) in the blood stream. (Reference range for CO2 in blood is 37-43 mm Hg).
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation for bicarbonate buffer system pH = 6.1 + log([HCO3-]/[H2CO3])
Draw the dissociation of ammonium ion. If the pKa =9.3, what form is found at pH = 7? pH = pKa + log [salt]/[acid] pH = pKa + log[NH3]/[NH4+]
The equation for the dissociation of ammonium ion NH4+ <--> NH3 + H+
If pH > pKa, what predominates? salt is predominant
if pH < pKa, what predominates? acid is predominant
Created by: carolanimal