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With principal quantum number, how many electrons are there per shell? 2n^2
Absorption spectrum vs. emission spectrum -absorption spectrum shows what is absorbed (black lines on rainbow) -emission spectrum shows what is emitted (colored lines on black background)
How many electrons does each orbital hold? 2
What are l, m, s? -l = subshell (0 -> n-1) -m = magnetic quantum number (-l to l) -s = spin quantum number (+/-1/2)
What does magnetic quantum number tell us? particular orbital within a subshell where an electron is highly likely to be found (orientation of orbital in space)
Aufbau principle shells/subshells of lower energy get filled first
Hund's rule fill each orbital with a single electron with same spin --> e-e repulsion in double occupied orbitals creates high energy
Pauli exclusion principle 2 electrons in same orbital must be of different spins
Bohr atom electron orbiting positive nucleus
Effective nuclear charge increases as you move...? left to right across periodic table
Higher effective nuclear charge, more / less stable? more stable --> higher ionization energy
Do alkali metals / alkaline earth metals increase / decrease in reactivity as you go down a group? increase (increasing radii)
Are halogens more / less reactive as you go down a group? less (increasing radii)
What is oxidation state of noble gases? 0
WHy do transition metals have high conductivity? loosely bound outer d electrons
Transition metals vs. representative elements -transition metals are d-block -representative elements are s and p block
Metals like to (gain/lose) electrons and nonmetals like to (gain/lose) electrons lose / gain
Metals form basic / acidic oxides, nonmetals form basic / acidic oxides. basic / acidic
What is ionization energy? energy needed to knock off first valence electron
What is ionization energy trend? decreases as you go down because of increasing radii, increases as you go right because of decreasing radii
Which group has the lowest ionization energy? Highest? alkali metals / noble gases
Is second ionization higher / lower for first ionization energy? much higher
What is electron affinity amount of energy released when something gain an electron --> how easily it can gain an electron
What is electron affinity trend? decreases down a group because of larger radii, increases as you go right
Which group has highest electron affinity? lowest? halogens / noble gases
What creates an ionic bond? complete transfer of electrons from electropositive element to the electronegative element
What is a covalent bond? sharing of electrons between elements
What is electronegativity? how much something hordes electrons in a covalent bond
What is the most electronegative element? fluorine
Can noble gases be electronegative? YES --> Kr and Xe
The more electronegative,... the more it hordes electrons
Why does atom size decrease across the period? increasing Zeff and electrostatic interaction
What does Zeff refer to in relation to protons and electrons? strength through which protons in nucleus can pull additional electrons
What is trend for Zeff? increases left to right and stays the same going down a group
The higher the Zeff,... the more tightly electrons are bound to atom
Atomic radii trend? size increases as you go down a column, size decreases as you go across a row
Is hydrogen a metal or nonmetal? nonmetal
Where is the most metallic element found? least metallic? lower right / upper left
What is a nucleon? one of the particle that makes up a nucleus --> either a proton or a neutron
Nucleus with a net spin will have odd / even number of nucleons? odd
How many times bigger are ions than electrons? thousand times
What is the lightest ion? hydrogen
Thomson Experiment existence of opposite charges --> charge is a fixed quantity
What is a positron? has the same mass as an electron but opposite charge
What formula to use for mass spectrometry? mv^2/r = qvB
Millikan oil drop experiment? -charge of electron has fixed value -charge of proton has opposite value
What is charge of electron 1.6E-9C
What is the charge of a proton? opposite of electron 1.6E-9C
Rutherford experiment atoms have dense nuclei with all atomic mass centrally concentrated (uniformly spaced) --> lattice structure
Rutherford showed that an atom is mostly? empty space
What is inside the nucleus? protons and neutrons
Heisenberg uncertainty principle not possible simultaneously to identify a particle's position and velocity at the same time
Energy of a photon E = hv
Is more or less energy required to carry out transitions when electrons are close to nucleus? more energy
Hydrogen transitions formula (1/nf^2 - 1/ni^2)
Number of electrons in each shell 2(n)^2
Mg2+ has 2 more or 2 less electrons? 2 less electrons
What is Zeff? moving left --> right across a period, add electrons and protons one at a time --> electrons more attracted to positive nucleus and size decreases
Calculate Zeff? #protons - shielding electrons -only electrons in shells below one of interest contribute
How does more protons affect size? smaller
What does a shell represent? energy level an electron can occupy
What does an orbital represent? region in which electron is likely to be found
What is a paramagnetic species? something with one unpaired electron --> susect to B-fields
Which elements are diamagnetic? alkaline earth metals and noble gases
What is a cation? -deficit in at least one electron
What is an anion? -excess of at least one electron
What is an excited state electron configuration? electrons are in an energy level higher than what is standard for ground state
Quantum numbers formula -n / l = n-1 / m=-l to l / up or down
What are the possibilities for angular quantum number, l? 0 --> n-1
What increases from going from left --> right? ionization energy, electron affinity, eN --> atomic radius decreases
Are cations smaller or larger than neutral atoms? Are anions smaller or larger than neutral atoms -smaller --> more compact -larger --> electron repulsion
Within a period, are anions bigger than cations? YES
What defines the radius of an atom? electrons
Is He bigger or smaller than H? bigger
What does an atom become when it is ionized? a cation
Why are the d-elements exceptions to several periodic trends? half-filled and filled d-shell stability
Does the atomic radius of d-elements change a lot? NO
The more protons... the greater the attractive interactions, smaller the atom
What creates higher ionization energy? less willing to give it up
Does increasing valence electrons affect shells? NO
Is I.E. trend clean or erratic? erratic
Trend in eN increases with what? number of valence electrons
What happens when a quantum of energy less than what is required to ionize element is absorbed by element? electron excited to higher energy state
Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Brackett? UV, visible, Infrared, Microwave
What does it mean to have the lowest threshold frequency for photoelectric effect? material that is easiest to ionize
What does electron capture create? decrease number in atomic number
What does positron capture create? increase number in atomic number
A beta particle is positive or negative? negative --> positive = positron
For a first order decay, what is constant? half-life regardless of concentration
Created by: 507935299
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