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Newhall - cardio

Fundamentals- Cardio

QuestionAnswer
What vessel is the site of greatest resistance to flow? Arterioles
What effect does Alpha receptor stimulation have on arterioles? Constriction
T/F vascular resistance is modified by parasympathetic nervous activity only? False. Modified by sympathetic activity and vasoactive substances
What shift in blood would tx with a sympathetomimetic cause? Depends on the receptor. Alpha would cause vascular constriction and arterial shift. Beta-2 would dilate the veins causing venous shift.
Pt has large amount of blood loss. What can their body (autonomic nervous system) do to compliance of the veins to ensure adequate circulating blood flow? Inc'd sympathetic tone --> decrease compliance --> dec'd capacitance --> blood shifted to arterial side.
Pt has pulmonary edema resulting from CHF. How can you treat by changing venous compliance? CHF can result from dec'd peripheral venous compliance. Blood shifted to arterial side and inc'd pressure aorta has to pump against --> inc'd pressure in pulmonary system --> pulmonary edema. Tx by increasing venous compliance (VASO ACTIVE SUBSTANCE).
What is the most important factor in blood flow resistance? Radius
Will dilating a capillary bed inc or dec total resistance (assuming parallel system) and blood pressure? Dec'd resistance and BP.
What causes non-laminar flow? blood flowing over obstruction
Pulse pressure systolic-diastolic pressure
Mean arterial pressure diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
Stroke volume volume of blood ejected from one ventricle in a single cycle.
In what tissue of the heart are conducting cells found? SA node, AV node, bundle of His, purkinje fibers.
An increase in conduction velocity of the AV node will do what to stroke volume/ CO? Decrease SV and CO. The ventricle won't have sufficient time to fill before contracting.
What is unique to cardiac AP in regards to depolarized membrane potential? It is relatively stabilized during phase 2.
If SA node is blocked/damaged which latent pacemaker takes over and roughly what will HR be? AV node, 40-60
What are the unique features of SA node AP? NO PHASE 1 or 2. NO PLATEAU. UNSTABLE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL. "funny" inward Na current causes slow depolarization of phase 4 --> next AP.
Which phase of SA node AP accounts for its automaticity? Phase 4- Longer than normal. Repolarization slowed by SLOW Na+ channels. These channels also --> next AP
Parasympatomimetic will affect what region of the heart? Atria only.
A drug that reduces inward flow of Ca+ during phase 2 (plateau) will have what effect on contractility and likely belongs to what class of drug? Dec'd contractility, parasympatomimetic.
An increase in HR has what effect on contractility? Inc'd. Staircase effect. Less time for Ca+ to be reabsorbed.
Which drug will results in inc'd SV and EF: positive ionotropic or negative ionotropic? Positive ionotropic
How will inc'd preload affect ventricular pressure-volume loop? Shift to the right. Greater volume at same phases/pressure.
Which is more costly for the heart (in terms of inc'd myocardial O2 consumption) : Pressure work (from afterload) or volume work? Pressure work is much more costly. Small inc in BP very costly compared to much inc'd volume at same BP.
Common pathology r/t chronic excessive workload? ventricular hypertrophy.
How does ventricular hypertrophy effect CO?
Created by: newhallsr