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What converts CO2 to bicarbonate? carbonic anhydrase
How does CO2 get transported? dissolved CO2, dissolved bicarbonate (major), bound to hemo, bound to plasma px
What is main fxn of circulatory system? 1. circulation of oxygen, nutrients, hx, ions, and fluids 2. removal of metabolic waste
Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through and into? superior/inferior vena cava --> right atrium
What is the path for deoxygenated blood to the lungs? superior/inferior vena cava - right atrium - right ventricle - pulmonary artery - lungs
What is path for oxygenated blood from the lungs? lungs - pulmonary vein - left atrium - left ventricle - aorta
Tricuspid valve separates right atrium from right ventricle
Pulmonary valve separates right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Bicuspid (mitral) valve Separates left atrium and left ventricle
Aortic valve separates left ventricle and aorta
What are the 4 major valves? tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, bicuspid valve, aortic valve
Systolic pressure is when blood is _____ and ventricles are _____ being pumped / contracting
Diastolic pressure is when blood is ______ and ventricles are _______. not being pumped / relaxing
What does pulmonary circulation accomplish? oxygenates blood and gets rid of CO2
What is pathway for pulmonary circulation? heart - lungs - back to heart
What does systemic circulation accomplish? provides oxygenated blood to rest of body
What is pathway for systemic circulation? heart - body - back to heart
Is there more or less blood pressure in pulmonary vs. systemic circulation? less
When oxygen levels are low, vasodilation / vasoconstriction to tissue? vasodilation
When oxygen levels are low in lungs, vasoconstriction / vasodilation? vasoconstriction
How does blood flow from artery --> vein? artery - arteriole - capillary - venule - vein
What are 2 types of arteries? -elastic artery (lots of elastic tissue) -muscular arteries (lots of muscle)
What are the components of an artery? endothelium, smooth muscle, connective tissue
Is the aorta active in vasoconstriction? NO
What is the major fxn of arteriole? controls blood flow to capillaries and vasoconstriction
What is the most important site for vasoconstriction? arteriole
What is the importance of vasoconstriction? determines which tissues get more blood
Is capillary involved with vasoconstriction? NO
What is the capillary made of and what is it's major fxn? -single cell thick endothelium -blood-tissue solute exchange
Is there vasoconstriction in a venule? In a vein? NO / SOME
What is major fxn of venule? merge of capillaries to be conducted to veins
What is a vein made of and what is major fxn? -endothelium, smooth muscle, connective tissue -return blood back to heart
Only _______ (arteries / veins) have valves veins
Rank thickness between artery, arteriole, vein, venule, capillary artery > vein > arteriole > venule > capillary
Blood pressure is highest in the ______. arteries (esp. aorta)
Blood pressure is lowest in ________. veins (esp. vena cava)
Why is BP lowest in veins? flow resistance brings pressure down
What hx increase BP? ADH, aldosterone, renin, adrenaline
Is your blood ever not flowing? NO --> elasticity of arteries
What are the 2 adaptations that help blood flow even at low pressure? respiratory pump and muscular pump
What are continuous capillaries? Where are they found? -no pores --> may have clefts at cx boundaries -skin and muscles
Fenestrated capillaries? Where are they found? -have small pores that are large enough for nutrients and hx but not for blood cx -found in small intestines, kidneys, endocrine organs
What are sinusoidal capillaries? Where are they found? -large pores so blood cx and lymphoscytes can pass -found in lymphoid tissues, liver, spleen, bone marrow
What are 3 layers of centrifuged blood? plasma, buffy coat (WBCs, platelets), RBCs
What is plasma made of? water, px, electrolytes, gases, nutrients, wastes, hx, ammonia
What is the most abundant cx in the body? red blood cx
Why does red blood cx have biconcave shape? no nucleus, greater gas exchange, easier travel
What does hemoglobin transport? O2 and CO2
Are platelets cx? NO --> cx fragments
Where are RBCs made and what are they made from -bone marrow / stem cx
Where are RBCs destroyed? spleen**, liver, bone marrow
What are the 3 components of hemoglobin? iron, heme, px (globin)
What happens to the iron, heme, globin of hemoglobin during recycling? -iron = recycled -heme --> bilirubin --> bile --> excreted in feces -globin = broken down to a.a.
Where are blood clotting factors produced? liver
What is the general clotting mechanism? platelet plug formation, coagulation, retraction and repair
What is the main coagulation factor? fibrinogen --> fibrin!
hematocrit % volume that is RBC = 45%
Each iron in a hemo can bind ____ oxygen. one
_____ binds oxygen tighter than hemoglobin. myoglobin
_____ binds hemoglobin tighter than oxygen carbon monoxide
What is hemo's lower oxygen affinity associated with? lower pH and higher temperature
When interstitial fluid pressure > lymphatic pressure, what happens? lymph vessels open and interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries
When interstitial fluid < lymphatic pressure, what happens? lymph vessel flaps close and prevents lymph from leaking out
What is a lacteal? lymphatic capillary in small intestine
Where are lymphocytes produced? bone marrow from blood stem cx
Why are there lymphocytes in lymph tissue? cleans and filters the lymph
What is lymph? stuff that leaks out of capillaries (water, px, WBC, chemicals)
Are there any RBC in lymph system? NO --> only WBC
What is the source of lymph? blood plasma from capillaries - interstitial fluid - lymph - returned to blood
Deoxygenated blood from the head and neck returns to the heart via_______. superior vena cava
Deoxygenated blood from lower body returns to heart via __________. inferior vena cava
hepatic portal system connects vasculatures of intestines and liver
hypophyseal portal system connects vasculatures of hypothalamus and pituitary in brain
semilunar valve -valve btwn arteries and ventricles --> prevent backflow of blood
BP in right atrium is _____. zero
cardiac output total blood volume pumped by ventricle in one minute
What closes during a systole? AV valves
What closes during a diastole? semilunar valve
myogenic activity heart can fire w/o any descending input from nervous system
Contraction begins at SA node in right atrium and goes through... atria - AV node - bundle of His - Purkinje fibers - ventricles
What kind of junctions are found in heart? electrical synapses from gam junctions
What slows the pace of the SA node? vagus nerve
Where is bundle of His located? located in walls separating ventricles
What is the problem with faster heartbeats? less time for blood to enter heart during relaxation
WHy do athletes have lower heart rate? have stronger heart and stroke volume (pump more blood volume per beat so heart doesn't have to work so hard)
What nervous system controls the heart? autonomic nervous system
Parasympathetic fibers release ___ to decrease heart rate AcH
Sympathetic fibers release ____ to increase heart rate. norepinephrine
What causes vasoconstriction in arterioles? sympathetic innervation
Which blood vessel regulates BP? arterioles
Why can veins carry large amts of blood? walls stretch but do not recoil
Where is most blood located? veins
Arteries rely on _______, veins rely on ______ to move blood. elastic smooth muscle / skeletal muscle
What are some methods for crossing the capillary wall? pinocytosis, diffusion, fenestratins, clefts
____ pressure decreases from arteriole to venule. hydrostatic
Rank cross-SA areas, arteries, capillaries, veins capillaries > veins > arteries
Where does blood move the slowest? capillaries
Is blood an ideal flow? NO
Where does the largest drop in pressure occur? arterioles
stroke volume liters per beat
Where is BP highest? aorta
Where are antibodies formed? lymph tissue
What does albumin do? -transport f.a. and steroids -regulate osmotic pressure
Why can't O2 dissolve in aq. env't? nonpolar
What don't RBC have ? no nuclei, mito, organelles
What kind of respiration do RBC use? anaerobic --> no mito
Can RBC divide? NO
What is life for a RBC? 120 days
What kind of mem does a RBC have? phospholipid membrane
What is hemophilia? malfxn in cascade of clotting reactions
What does thromboplastin do? prothrombin --> thrombin --> fibrinogen --> fibrin
What are leukocytes? cx that have organelles involved in immuen response
What are the 2 types of leukocytes? granular leukocytes and agranulocytes
What is difference btwn granulocytes and agranulocytes? -granulocytes = nonspecific immunity -agranulocytes = specific immunity
What do granulocytes include? neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
What do agranulocytes include? lymphocytes and monocytes (nonspecific)
What are monocytes? macrophages that phagocytize foreign matter
What are monocytes found in the brain called? microglia
What does HIV cause loss of? T-cx
_____ is the universal recipient blood type and can donate to ______. Type AB / Type AB -> no antibodies for either
_____ is the universal donor and receive from_____ Type O / Type O --> makes A and B antibodies though
What are the 2 major antigen families for blood types? -ABO antigens -Rh factor
Where is blood stored? spleen
What type of immune cx are the most in the body? neutrophils
What is pus? dead neutrophils and monocytes
Lymphatic system -collect excess interstitial fluid and return to blood through large veins in neck -transport px and fats -equalization of fluid distribution
What kind of system is lymphatic system? open
What does lymph empty into? thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct
Lymphoma malignant lymphocytes grow too fast / live too long and produce tumors
Gas exchange is based upon the equilibrium concentration of ____. oxygen and carbon dioxide
How does breathing create thermoregulation? breathing causes you to lose heat
What does diaphragm do when contracts? increases chest volume, creates negative pressure inside lungs
When somebody gives you mouth-to-mouth, what type of pressure is that? positive
Why does surface tension cause lung to collapse? surface tension wants to create spherical structure
What reduces surface tension? surfactants
Intrapulmonary pressure vs. intrapleural presure -intrapulmonary = inside lung pressure -intrapleural = intrapleural space pressure
What does intrapulmonary pressure equal to? Intrapleural pressure? -atmospheric pressure -less than atmospheric pressure
What is pressure differential in breathng? difference btwn intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure
What controls respiration? medulla oblongata
Why is left lung smaller than right lung? heart
Where is cilia found? Problem in microtubule production will affect what? -respiratory tract, Fallopian, spinal cord -respiration, fertility, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
thoracic cavity has heart and lungs
intrapleural space space btwn visceral and parietal layers
Visceral vs. parietal pleura -visceral = adjacent to lungs -parietal = adheres to diaphragm and thoracic chest wall
What forces air into lungs? pressure diff btwn negative pressure in intrapleural space and high (atmospheric) pressure in lungs
During inhalation, intrapleural pressure ______. During exhalation, intrapleural pressure ______. -decrease -increase
What controls respiration rate? pH sensitive chemocrx in medulla oblongata
hypoventilation lack of breathing, CO2 increases
hyperventilation too much breathing, oxygen increases, carbon dioxide decreases
tidal volume amount of air htat naturally exhals / inahles
What does cholera create? causes GI to secrete a lot of bicarbonate -->metabolic acidosis
Myoglobin has stronger affinity to oxygen than ____ but weaker than ________. -hemoglobin -cytochrome oxidase
The spleen is part of the _____ system. cardiovascular
The trachea is part of the ____ system. respiratory
What is anemia? abnormally low conc. of hemoglobin in blood
Where are lymph nodes found? groin and neck
Capillary hydrostatic pressure causes fluid to leave the cardiovascular system
tissue hydrostatic pressure forces fluid back into vascular system
foramen ovale allows blood to enter from right atrium to left atrium
WHy is fetal circulation complicated? non-functional lungs and liver
ductus venosus shunts blood flow of umbilical vein directly into inferior vena cava -allows O2-blood from placenta to bypass liver
ductus arteriosus allows blood from right ventricle to bypass fetus' fluid-filled lungs -connects pulmonary artery to aorta
Does a fetus breathe? NO --> receives all nutrients from mother
umbilical vein vs. umbilical artery oxygenated blood vs. deoxygenated
carbs and a.a. absorbed in small intestines enter systemic circulation via? hepatic portal system
fats that are absorbed by lacteal in small intestine enter systemic circulation via? thoracic duct
Where is hydrostatic pressure highest? capillaries --> pushes out
What determines blood pressure? cardiac output and resistance to blood flow
Hydrostatic pressure vs. osmotic pressure -pushing out vs. pulling in
What is ideal flow according to Bernoulli? non-turbulent flow, laminar flow, incompressible fluids
What Bernoulli's principle does the cardiovascular match and not mach? -match: as cross-SA increases, fluid velocity decreases -not match: As cross-SA increases, fluid pressure increases --> fluid pressure is low at capillaries
Where is blood velocity lowest? capillaries
Where is the spleen located and what system is it part of ? left / cardiovascular
What side is the liver on? right
What organs regulate BP? heart and kidneys
What does ANF do? stimulates elimination of sodium and water by kidneys
Each heart lub/dub sound correspond to? closing of a heart valve
What creates the first sound of a heartbeat? closing of mitral and tricuspid valves
What creates the second sound of a heartbeat? closing of pulmonaric and aortic valves
What is the main pacemaker of the heart? SA node
Pulse pressure systolic - diastolic pressures
blood pressure of right atrium zero
What is the renin-angiotensin pathway? -kidneys - renin - angiotensinogen - Angio I - ACE acts on Angio I to convert to Angio 2
What does Angiotensin 2 stimulate? aldosterone release from adrenal cortex to act on kidneys to increase sodium and fluid retention
What are the major factors that influence BP? blood volume, heart rate, and peripheral resistance to blood flow
Does an increase in the number of blood vessels increase or decrease BP? decrease
The pharynx is part of the ____ and the _____. digestive system and respiratory tract
Describe pathway of air into lungs? nose - pharynx - larynx - trachea - bronchi
What is the main force that drives the flow of blood? pressure gradient
What organ releases erythropoietin? What does it do? kidneys --> stimulates bone marrow to roduce more blood cx
What are central chemoreceptors affected by? changes in CO2 concentration (hydrogen ion)
What is the only metabolic pathway that produces CO2? krebs
Where does reabsorption of most peptides and sugars occur? proximal convoluted tubule
Where is the major site for water reabsorption? loop of henle
Do both ventricles pump different amounts of blood? NO --> the same
Sickle cell anemia genetic dx that causes red blood cx to collapse when they are not carrying oxygen
In the atmosphere, what gas percent is the highest? nitrogen
Where are the majority of plasma px synthesized at? liver
Percentage of red blood cells and plasma. -erythrocytes -45% -plasma - 55%
anemia red blood cx is decreased below normal range
What synthesizes platelets? megakaryocites
What secretes erythropoietin and renin? kidneys
What is the largest non-solid organ in the body? skin
Does innate immunity become more efficient upon subsequent exposures? NO
What does Poiseuille's principle say about flow rate and conduction velocity? both vary directly with radius^4 and both vary indirectly with length -->short and wide = fastest Q = r^4 / viscosity*length
How does resistance relate to Poiseuille's principle? INVERSE R = viscosity*length/r^4
Where is BP and velocity the highest? aorta/arteries
Where is velocity lowest and SA the greatest? capillaries
Where is BP lowest? veins
Created by: 507935299

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