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Why does menstrual cycle stop with menopause? ovary is less responsive to pituitary gonadotropins and cyclic changes disappear
Regulative Hypotheiss Each cx has complete info for construction of multicx organism --> dependent on cx position and environmental factors
Mosaic Hypothesis parts of plans handed out to cx that need them during development
Does sperm ever interact with blood? NO --> protected by blood-testes barrier
Where is sperm made? seminiferous tubules
Where is sperm stored? epididymis
What is path of sperm? seminiferous tubules - epididymis - vas deferens - ejaculatory duct - nothing - urethra - penis
What does GNRH stimulate? release of FSH and LH
What does the follicle house and produce? houses oocyte and produces estrogen
Estrogen normally inhibits ____ but causes ____ surge when it reaches a certain threshold LH and FSH / LH
What is necessary to maintain the endometrium? progesterone (and estrogen)
What maintains the corpus luteum? HcG from placenta
The corpus luteum goes away after the ______ trimester no matter what first
What takes over the job of the c.l. and makes progesterone? placenta
What does FSH stimulate in oogenesis? primary oocyte --> secondary oocyte
What is one of the first signs of pregnancy? HcG in urine
What causes menses? no hx support of endometrium and it sloughs off
What is a baby sperm called vs. a mature sperm? spermatogonium vs. spermatozoa
Where does fertilization take place? oviduct in fallopian tubes
Where does the primary oocyte halt before puberty? Meiosis I at prophase
Where does primary oocyte become upon completion of meiosis I? secondary oocyte
What does secondary oocyte halt at before fertilization? Meiosis II at metaphase
Both oogonium and spermatogonium become primary after? puberty
Spermatogonia --> sperm spermatogonia - primary - secondary - spermatid - sperm
What does sperm contribute to ovum? egg contribute? -sperm = DNA only -egg = DNA + everything else
What is the differentiation of ovum that implants in the endometrium? blastocyst
Zygote --> Blastocyst steps zygote - morula - blasocyst
What prevents additional sperm from penetrating egg? cortical reaction
What causes sperm to penetrate egg? acrosomal reaction
What is cleavage in relation to cell growth? mitotic divisions without cell growth
Blastula vs. blastocyst -blastula = non-mammals -blastocyst = mammals
Morula vs. blastocyst -morula = solid ball -blastocyst = hollowed-out ball
What are the basic stages of development (fertilization --> neuralation)? fertilization, cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, neuralation
Gastrulation in mammals cx start migrating inward at primitive streak
Primitive streak where cx start migrating inwards during gasturlation
What is importance of gastrulation? forms primary germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm)
How to form the brain and spinal cord during neuralation? ectoderm folds into a tube
Ectoderm skin, nerves, brain, lens of eye
Mesoderm heart, muscle, skeleton, blood vessels, bone, kidney, gonads
Endoderm inner lining of digestive tract and respiratory tract, guts, lungs, liver, pancreas, digestive internal organs
Determination irreversible commitment to become a certain cx type
Differentiation becoming a cx type and adopting its specialized fxns
specification ccx is just beginnign to be committed to develop into a certain type --> reversible
What are the stages of commitment? specification followed by determination
What causes induction? physical touching of cells or by releasing chemicals
What marks certain proteins for degradation? ubiquitin
What are the proteases called that act during apoptosis? caspases
What is a protease? enzyme that catalyzes protein degradation
Where are testes located? scrotum
How long does it take to mature sperm? 72 days
What contributes to seminal fluid? seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands
What provides energy to the sperm? fructose
Sperm is ____ in order to survive in acidic female environment. alkaline
What does midpiece have in sperm? lots o fmito for energy
Primary spermatocyte are haploid / diploid while secondary are? -diploid -haploid
What is a mature spermatid called? spermatozoa
How does spermatozoa become activated for fertilization and where? -vagina --> capacitation
What is the path for sperm starting at the vagina? vagina - v.canal. - cervix - uterus - fallopian tubes
How are the testes both an exocrine and an endocrine gland? -exocrine - seminal fluid -endocrine - androgens and peptides
Function of leydig cells convert cholesterol --> testosterone
What effect does Testosterone have on sertoli cells? T binds to a special rx and converted to DHT
Role of DHT on sperm development. DHT diffuses into Sertoli nucleus and instructs DNA to make RNA -->RNA affect spermatogenic cells
Which male cx does LH bind to and what does it do? Leydig cell - increases cholesterol --> T
What male cx does FSH bind to and what does it do? sertoli cx - increases T --> DHT --> also synthesizes rx for T
What is the main androgen that affects sperm development? DHT
Testosterone has negative feedback on? hypothalamus and a. pituitary -LH
What happens when DHT is too high? increase in inhibin which results in neg. feedback on a. pituitary -FSH
All the oogonia a female will ever produce is made during the first___? 3 months
Atresia process of oocyte degeneration
When does the secondary oocyte underogo second meiotic division? after fertilization has taken place
When does primary oocyte undergo first meiotic division? LH surge during puberty
What is a primary follicle? primary oocyte surrounded by follicle cells
How long does follicular phase last? 14 days
Layers of a primary follicle from outside to inside. theca cx - granulosa cx - zona pellucida
Male: female :: leydig: ____ :: sertoli: ______ theca / granulosa
When does ovulation occur? once secondary oocyte is released
When does ovulation occur? 14th day
ANtrum primary follicle fluid that primes for ovulation
What does the burst follicle become? corpus luteum
What is main fxn of c.l.? secrete progesterone (and estrogen) to maintain endometrium lining
What do theca cx do? Where does it go after? convert cholesterol --> T -diffuses into follicle cx to become Estrogen
In the female, LH affects the ____ cx while FSH affects the ______ cx. theca / follicle
Low conc. of estrogen, there is _____ feedback on hypo and a.pit. HIgh conc. of estrogen, there is _______feedback on hypo and a.pit -negative -positive
From ovulation to beginning of menstrual phase, what is that phase called? luteal phase
Estrogen alone has _____ feedback. E and P in combo have ______. positive /negative
What is importance of E and P produced from c.l.? negative feedback and prevents another follicle from developing
What is the only thing that enters the secondary oocyte from the sperm? nucleus
What mem. does the sperm contact during fertilization? zona pellucida
When is HCG made? ONLY during the first three months of pregnancy to maintain c.l.
What takes over the role of the c.l. once it degrades? placenta --> makes more E and P
Cells of similar type form____? tissues
What is the structure called that is opposite to where sperm penetrates the egg? gray crescent
What is notochord derived from? mesoderm
What gives rise to nervous ssytem? neural plate
Where is neural plate derived from? ectoderm
What is formed from neural plate? neural groove --> spinal cord and brain
Intracellular interactions usually result in a _____. Intercellular interactions usually create ______. -prepattern -developmental induction
Animal pole vs. vegetal pole -animal pole = cytoplasm -vegetal pole = yolk
What sets up the initial prepattern? grey crescent
Dorsal lip area where cells from animal pole invaginate into blastula
What is main role of dorsal lip? organizer of gastrulation and neuralation
In order for the uterus to be receptive, it MUST be? quiescent
When is the uterus no longer quiescent? At a certain ratio of P:E --> E increases faster than P
When are the 2 main estrogen surges? -LH surge for ovulation -surge to induce contractions
2 main fxns of oxytocin. induce contractions and milk ejection
What does the formation of a primitive streak mark in mammals? beginning of gastrulation followed by neuralation
When will the embryo reach the uterus? by the 5th or 6th day --> blastocyst
What is the trophoblast? surrounding ectodermal cx that cover inner cx mass
Chorion vs. allantois chorion = gas exchange and transfer of nutrients allantois = gas exchange and get rid of wastes
What preserves teh barrier between the mother's and fetus' blood? chorion - placenta
monozygotic twins genetically identical offspring when single zygote splits in 2
dizygotic twin (fraternal twins) not genetically identical - 2 eggs are released and fertilized
What are 3 main shunts for fetal circulation? -foramen ovale -ductus venosus -ductus arteriosus
Where is fetal respiration carried out in? placenta
HOw is placenta formed? from chorion
Does maternal and fetal blood mix together? NO --> diffusion of everything
What forms peripheral nervous system? ectoderm
adrenal cortex vs. adrenal medulla layers -adrenal cortex = mesoderm -adrenal medulla = ectoderm
archenteron -cavity created by deep invagination -later becomes gut
blastopore -opening of archenteron -deuterosomes (humans), becomes anus -protosomes, becomes mouth
What in the urine is the first sign of pregnancy? HcG
indeterminate cleavage vs. determinate cleavage -cx that develop into complete organisms -cx that are determined to differentiate into a certain type of cx
totipotent cx any cx could produce complete individual
morula solid mass of embryotic stem cells
blastula vs. blastocyst blastula - non mammals blastocyst - mammals
What doe s blastocyst consist of? trophoblast and inner cell mass
trophoblast vs. inner cx mass -trophoblast makes chorion and placenta -inner cx mass makes actual organism
Why is it so important during pregnancy to have neg. feedback on GnRH, LH, and FSH? make sure development of another follicle
What does c.l. degrade into? corpus albicans
What are 4 phases of menstrual cycle? -follicular phase -ovulation -luteal phase -menstruation
What are all of the developmental stages? -fertilization -cleavage -gastrulation -neuralation -neural crest formation -organogenesis
organogenesis process by which layers of ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm become internal organs
parthenogenesis ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization
Are all nucleic acids circular / linear? linear
Division of oocyte during meiosis creates uneven ____ but even ______. cytoplasm / nuclear material
What does coelom form from? mesoderm
How do contraceptives work? inhibit LH surge by altering E/P levels --> suppress ovulation
SEVEP UP seminiferous tubules, epididymus, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostate, urethra, penis
What is a major sign for ovulation? sudden rise in LH
Why are synthetic hx better? last longer and less degraded
How long is each phase of the menstrual cycle? -Menstruation (0-5) -Follicular (5-15) -Ovulation (24 hours) -Luteal (secretory) phase - 14 daysalways
What does LH release in males? testosteroen
What are the 3 type of cell population? -rapidly dividing - skin cx, tympanic mem, GI tract -stable cx - pancreatic and liver that are normally arrested in Go but can divide if necessary -permanent cx - nerve and cardiac - no mitotic activity
Created by: 507935299
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