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name the three functional layers of the heart Endocardium, Epicardium, Myocardium
the Endocardium is composed of this: endothelium and CT
the Epicardium is composed of this: mesothelium and CT
the myocardium is composed of this: cardiac muscle and purkinje fibers
the outermost layer of the heart is called this epicardium
what cellular differences exist between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle? cardiac muscle has intercalated disc and a central nucleus. skeletal muscles have their nuclei on the edge.
intercalated discs of cardiac muscles are made up of these they "spot welds" of desmosomes and gap junctions that connect cytoplasm of each cell to the cytoplasm of neighbors.
this is the pacemaker of the heart SA node
this signaling structure sends impulses down the bunds of His, which is composed of purkinje fibers AV node
these fibers are filled with glycogena nd transmit action potentials much faster than cardiac myocytes. purkinje fibers
describe the function of purkinje fibers in relation to pumping blood they allow the heart to squeeze blood from the apex out rather than pushing blood to the apex of the heart.
this structure of the heart is a layer of insulating connective tissue that electrically isolates the atria from the ventricle. it prevents action potentials from spreading from atrium to ventricle fibrous skeleton
sympathetic input from these structures strengthens the heartbeat cardiothoracic splanchnic nerves
parasympathetic input from this nerve of the brainstem slows down the heartbeat right and left vagus nerve
name the three layers of large blood vessels tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia
describe what the tunica intima is made of endothelium and subendothelial connective tissue. it includes the internal elastic lamina in larger vessels
describe what the tunica media is made of smooth muscle and external elastic lamina in larger vessels
describe what the tunica adventitia is made of dense irregular CT with some elastic fibers
list the three categories of arteries elastic (large), muscular (medium), arteriole (small)
The ballooning out of an artery due to weakness in arterial wall is called this Aneurysm
In an Aneurysm, this layer of the artery is what balloons out Tunica media
This type of capillary is present in the CNS (hint, it forms the blood brain barrier) continuous
This type of capillary has a tin endothelium with large openings closed by a basal lamina. It is located in the GI tract, endocrine glands, renal glomerular tubules, etc. Fenestrated capillaries.
These type of capillaries are found in the liver and hemopoietic organs (spleen and bone marrow). They have irregular walls, wide gaps between cells, large fenestrations, and incomplete basal lamina. Sinusoidal (discontinuous) capillaries
This condition is caused by tortuous, dilated veins caused by decrease in muscle tone and failure of venous valves. Blood pools and may thrombose within the vessels. Varicose Veins
List the types of veins in order from smallest to largest. capillaries, venules, veins, large veins.
Created by: aferdo01