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Micro- Metablosim

Metabalism, Genetics, Growth

Metabolism Sum of all chemical reactions in your body that transport energy
Catabolism Large molecule breaking up into small molecules and releases energy (during digestion)
Metabolic Pathways Sequence of chemical reactions that result in catabolism or anabolism
Redox Reaction OIL RIG
OIL RIG Oxidation Is Loss/ Reduction Is Gain
Glycolysis start- end Glucose (C6H12O6)- 2 pyruvic acid
Where does glycolysis occur cytoplasm
Glycolysis Net gain ATP & NADH 2,2
Aerobic reactions require the presence of Oxygen
Transition Net gain NADH 2
Transition Start- end 2 Pyruvic Acid- 2 Acetyl CoA
Kreb's Cycle Net gain ATP, NADH and FADH2 2,6,2
Where does the Kreb's cycle occur? Cell membrane of prokaryote
Electron Transport- for each NADH __ ATP produced, for each FADH2__ ATP produced 3,2
Anaerobic Respiration- Oxygen is/is not the final e- acceptor? NOT
Anaerobic Respiration- Increased/Decreased ATP yield? Decreased
Fermentation- Does/Does Not require O2? Not
Fermentation's final e- acceptor? Organic molecule
Fermentation- ATP yield? Low
Fermentation- end product resulted due to final e- acceptor being organic
Fermentation- end products.. Lactic Acid, Ethanol, Acetone, Butyric Acid,
What is deanimation? Ripping off of amine group
Where does Photophosphorylation occur? Chloroplast
What is carbon fixation? creating glucose
Psychrophiles cold loving
Psychrophiles OGT 15C
Psychotrophs Cause food spoilage in fridge
Psychotrophs OGT 20-30C
Mesophiles Most common- all animal pathogens
Mesophiles OGT 25-40C
Thermophiles Heat Loving
Thermophiles OGT 50-60C
Extreme Thermophiles OGT 110C
Most Bacteria optimal pH 6.5-7.5
Most Bacteria die at __pH 4.0
Acidophiles Love low pH 1.0
Example of Acidophile H. Pylori
What does H Pylori use for a buffer in media? peptone
How much water does bacteria require? 80-90%
Halophiles 2-3% [salt]
what is the [salt] in our agar in lab? 1 1/2% [salt]
What is the number one chemical requirement of bacteria? water
Where do Chemoheterotrophs get their carbon? organic molecules
Where do Chemoautotrophs and Phototrophs get their carbon? Carbon Dioxide
Why is Nitrogen an important chemical requirement for bacteria? DNA/RNA & Amine group
Why is Sulfir an important chemical requirement for bacteria? Needed to make amino acids
Why is Phosphorus an important chemical requirement for bacteria? To make DNA/RNA, energy (ATP)
Obligate Aerobes MUST have oxygen to live
Faculative Anaerobes Will use oxygen but do not require it
Aerotolerant Do not use oxygen but can live with it
Obligate Anaerobes Do not use Oxygen will kill them
Microaerophiles Use oxygen but only at extremely low levels
solid to liquid at ___C 100
Liquid to solid at __C <50
Chemically defined Media Known exact chemical composition
Complex Media Must contain ALL nutrients, do not know EXACT chemical make up
Selective media Surpresses growth of unwanted bacteria
Differentia Media allows to distinguish between different colonies
Enrichment Media Increases number of desired bacteria rapidly
Pure Culture Streak plate to get back to normal pure culture
Most common bacterial division Binary fusion
Binary fusion cell elongates and DNA is replicated, cell wall and plasma divide, formation of cross wall, cells seperate
Generation time time for cell to divide or population to double
Average generation time 1-3 hours
Lag phase making energy needed to divide
Log phase expenential growth
Stationary Phase number of births equal number of deaths
Death Phase bacteria die at a constant rate
during the phase of growth, when is bacteria the most suscpetible? Log Phase
Direct Methods of Microbial growth (4) plate count, filtration, most probable number and microscope count
Indirect methods of microbial growth (3) Turbidity (spectrophotometer), metabolic activity, dry weight
the only way to culture Myobacterium leprae Armadillo- living culture
What is a carbon dioxide incubator and 2 examples used for obligate anaerobes- jars and Thioglycolate Media
Sterilization free of microbial life; enough heat to kill all pathogens
Disinfection kill ONLY vegetative microbes- not spores
4 ways to disinfect chemical, UV radiation, boiling water, antiseptic on living tissue
Degerming mechanical removal of microbes
how do you degerm alcohol wipe
Sanitization lower the number of microbes
"cide" to kill
"stat" "static" or "stasis" to inhibit
"aseptic" free of significant contamination
3 Influences of microbial control type of microbe (resistance), environmental conditions (heat), psychiological state (spores)
What is the rate at which microbes die number divided by time
What are 4 influences on the death rate of microbes number, characteristics (spores), environmental (presence of organics) time of exposure
actions of control agent (kill or inhibit)-2 damage membrane permeability, damage proteins or nucleic acids
Physical methods of control- 6 heat, filtration, low temperature, dessication, osmotic pressure, radiation
how does heat destroy microbes denatures ptns
thermal death point lowest temperature in which kills all bacteria in 10mins
thermal death time minimum time to kill all bacteria at a given temo
decimal reduction time "D Value" time required to kill 90% of bacteria at a given temperature
Moist heat destroys by coagultating proteins
Autoclave Sterilization, 15psi at 121C about 10-15mins will sterilize
Pasteurization enough heat to kill pathogens only
pateurization of milk 72C 15secs
pasteurization of UHT milk 140C for <1 sec
how does dry heat kill bacteria oxidation hot air sterilization 170C 2hours
How is the rate of Filtration affected pore size
HEPA Hih Efficiency Particulation Air filter 0.3 micrometers pore size
Ionizing radiation xray gamma rays e- beams break covalent bonds
non ioniing radiation causes thymine dimers in DNA
chemical method of control disinfectant
disinfectant- 10 phenols- biguanides- halogens- alcohols- heavy metals- surfactants- quatenary amonia compounds- chemical food preservers- antibiotics- aldehydes
phenols- example carbolic acid
biguanides- example chlorhexide
halogens- 2 examples iodine, bleach
alcohols- what do they do denature ptns, dissolve cell membrane
heavy metals- example silver nitrate (newborns eyes)
surfactant- example soaps
quatenary amonnium compounds- example lab benches
chemical food preserver "oate" or "nate"
aldehydes- example 2% cidex- beauty shop
genetics science of heredity- genetic makeup and function
chromosomes cellular structure that carries DNA
genes segements of DNA that code for a functional product
mRNA sequence of nuclieotides that is transcribed from DNA
Protein sequence of amini acids translated from mRNA
Phenotype expression of genotype- observable/measurable
DNA of bacteria single, circular, double helix attached to cell membrane- highly coiled
3' end sugar
5' end phosphate
what kind of bind do A&T have? double hydrogen
what kind of bind do C&G have? triple hydrogen
DNA helicase unzips DNA
template strand old strand
Which end does DNA polymerase bind at 3'-5'
Leading strand only reads... 3'-5'
while leading strand is assembling, creates lagging strand
lagging strand only reads... 5'-3'
Which strand is the RNA primer placed? lagging strand
okasaki fragments missing pieces of DNA- must be fixed
what repairs okaski fragments DNA Lipase
what is transcription taking info on DNA transcribe to RNA
In transcription "T" is replaced with "U" Uricil
Promotor 1st gene RNA polymerase binds to
Leading (sDNA)- what is the mRNA transcription TACTGAATCTACT AUGACUUAGAUGA
Leading (sDNA)- what is the ASDNA Lagging strand TACTGAATCTACT ATGACTTAGATGA
what is translation code for mRNA synthesis ptn by assembling amino acids
how do you read mRNA? Codons
how many possible codons are there 64
codon sequence always begins with this... AUG
what kind of bond to codons have peptide
repression inhibits gene expression- will not be transcribed
induction turns on transcription "remove repression"
mutation any change in genetic material
silent mutation change in 3rd codon position
base/substitution "Point mutation" change in a single nucleiotide which results in the change of the amino acid CUU (Leu)- CCU (His)
Nonsence mutation "STOP" codon in the middle of ptn
frame-shift mutation due to insertion or deletion of nucleiotides
spontaneous mutation mutagens- DNA ligase missed fixing something
3 chemical mutations nitrous acid, base analogs, benzypyrenes
2 radiation mutations low does radiation, thymine dimer
transformation gene enters bacteria- DNA ligase adds it to new bacterias dna
which gram have sex pili gram - pulls dna from gram +
transduction transf of DNA via a bacteriophage Virus- DNA- Bacteria
plasmids most genes NOT vital but used for digestion of unusual sugars
transpons "jumping genes" cut themselves out of genes and insert elsewhere
recombinant technology "genes" plasmid is recombinant source E.Coli
Created by: aeponton



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