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Embryo

Female Reproductive Cyle-Test #1

FrontBack
What are the 3 stages of the Ovarian Cycle? Follicular Phase; Ovulatory Phase; Luteal Phase
FOLLICULAR Phase 1. Day 1-12; 5-15 follicles begin but only 1 matures into oocyte (Graafian follicle); 2. Follicular cells produce estrogen & surround oocyte; 3. Zona pellucida surrounds plasma membrane of ooctye; 4. Stromal develop. of theca folliculi
Follicular (Granulosa) Cells A single layer of flattened cells that surround the oocyte & produce estrogen; Later advance to form a multilayer structure called the cumulus oophorus
Zona Pellucida A glycoprotein covering that surronds the plasma membrane of the oocyte; Stucture binds spermatozoa and is req'd for acromsomal rxn; 5 days after fertilization Z.P degenerates & is replaced by unederlying layer of trophoblastic cells
Primordial Follicle All follicle until puberty; 1° oocyte in prophase I of meiosis; single layer of flattened follicular cells
Graafian (Mature) Follicle Follicle prior to ovulation; Oocyte completes meiosis I; 1st polar body formed; haploid; Oocyte surrounded by cumulous oophorus and corona radiata; Oocyte & cumulus oophorus detaches from follicle
Corona radiata Innermost layer of the cumulus oophorus that transfers add'l cytoplasmic nutrients to oocyte
OVULATORY Phase Days 12-14; Ovarian surface bulges; Stigma (avascular spot); surface degenerates from lack of blood supply; Follicle ruptures; Oocyte & follicular fluid extruded into peritoneum; 2° oocyte begins Meiosis II; Oocyte transport to fallopian tubes by fimbria
LUTEAL Phase Days 15-28; Follicle & Theca foliiculi form corpus luteum w/in 24 hrs;
Corpus Luteum A temporary endocrine gland that produces PROGESTERONE; if Pregnant lasts 20 wks; Nonpregnant lasts 10-12 days
What are the 3 hormones that control the OVARIAN cycle? GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone)
GnRH Produced in Hypothalamus; Acts on cells of ant. pituitary gland; causes secretion of FSH & LH
FSH Produced by ant. pituitary; Promotes early develop. of ovarian follicles
LH Produced by ant. pituitary; Triggers ovulation; Promotes develop. of corpus luteum; released in final stages of follicle maturation
What 3 phases make up the UTERINE (menstrual) Cycle? Menstrual Phase; Proliferative Phase; Secretory Phase
What 3 structures (layers) makeup the menstrual cycle? Perimetrium-Outer Covering; Myometrium-Inner layer made of smooth muscle; Endometrium-Functional & Basal Layer involved w/ implantation
How long does the menstrual cycle last? 28 days
MENSTRUAL Phase Day 1-4; Sloughing off (bleeding) of functional layer (endometrium); pregnancy did not occur
PROLIFERATIVE Phase Days 5-15; Cells in basal layer regrow-functional & basal layer is regenerated
SECRETORY Phase Days 15-28; Glands secrete glycogen (form of energy); If Fertilization takes place embryo implants on day 6 of SECRETORY phase (day 20 of uterine cyle); If NO Fertilization, ischmia (inadq. blood supply) in endometrium leads to sloughing off
What are the 2 hormones that control the MENSTRUAL cycle? Estrogen & Progesterone
Estrogen Produced by follicular cells in ovary; Promotes proliferation of endometrium during 1st half of menst. cycle
Progesterone Produced by Corpus Luteum of the ovary; Stimulates endometrial glands to secrete glycogen; Maintains blood supply;
Falling levels of Estrogen & Progesteron lead to what? Ischemia and sloughing off of funct. layer of endometrium
Created by: terryg025