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Embryo

Gametogenesis-Test #1

FrontBack
Embryology The formation of basic structures of the body; 2nd-8th week
Development Maturation using basic plan est. during embryogenesis; incl. pre- & post- natal periods
Teratology Study of causes of birth defects
Gametogenesis Production of the 2 cells required for generation of new individual
What is the purpose of Meiosis? 1. To reduce chromosome # by 1/2 2. Two cell divisions w/ 1 round of DNA replication 3. 1st division reduces chromosomes from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid)
Primary germ cells divide by what? Meiosis
How many gametes are produced by 1° spermatocyte (males)? 4 gametes
How many gametes are produced by 1° ooctye (females)? 1 gamete
Spermatogenesis Process of prod. of male gamete & modifying it to perform reprod. function
Purpose of Spermatogenesis? 1. Takes place in SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES 2. Begins at puberty & continues throughout life 3. 1° spermatocytes by meiosis I produce 2° spermatocytes; 2nd meiotic division 2° spermatocytes=2 spermatids 4. Undergo spermiogenesis
Spermiogenesis Converts immature spermatids to mature spermatozoan
Process of Spermiogenesis 1. Spermatids lose most of their cytoplasm 2. Nucleus condenses 3. Acrosome forms which contains the enzymes needed for fertilization 4. Flagellum develops, necessary for motility 5. Process takes 64 days
Oogenesis Formation of the female gamete
Process of Oognesis 1. Takes place in ovary 2. Process begins during prenatal develop. 3. Oogonia divide by meiosis I to produce 1° oocytes and replicate DNA 4. By birth 1° oocytes surrounded by sngl layer of follicular cells and stopped at Meiosis I
Primary germ cells (1° ooctyes) in females are produced prior to when? Prior to birth
1° ooctyes Remain dormant till puberty (10-14 yrs) and OMI Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor released by follicular cell; at puberty 1 oocyte/month matures and is released from ovary; 2nd Meiotic division only completed if FERTILIZATION takes place
Oogenesis & Spermatogenesis BOTH: Produce haploid (23) gametes & Produce MATURE gametes beginning puberty
Diff. in oogenesis & spermatogenesis Oogenesis: 1.No stem cell in ovary after birth 2. 1°ooctye=1 mature gamete 3. Large, nonmotile 4. 1 mature gamete prod./month 5.Prod. only till ~50 SPERMATOGENESIS: 1.Spermatogonia present AFTER birth 2. 1°sprmatocyte=4 gametes 3.Small;motile lots prod
Types of abnormal gametes Chromosomal & Morphological
Types of Abnormal Chromosomal Gametes Nondisjunction (Trisomy, Monosomy); Translocations; Deletions
Nondisjunction A chromosomal anomaly that happens when chromosomes don't separate as they normally should. Two Types: Trisomy-3 copies of chromosomes; Monosomy-1 copy of a particular chromosome
Translocations Chromosomes are damaged & repaired but repaired incorrectly
Deletions Large or small segment of chromosomes is lost
Types of Morphological anomalies Sperm: two heads or tails; nonmotile Oocytes: 2 oocytes in 1 follicle; 1 ooctye w/ more than one nucleus (binucleate)
Created by: terryg025