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BJU Life Science 5

Bob Jones Life Science - Chapter 5

chromosome A strand of DNA with associated proteins; usually found in the nucleus of a cell; the basis of heredity.
gene A segment of DNA in which the sequence of nucleotides codes for a specific protein (or part of a protein), which in turn contributes to a specific characteristic.
diploid Having two of each type of chromosome in the cells of an organism;human diploid number is 46
cell division The division of one cell into two cells; includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
interphase The phase of a cell's life cycle before cell division; genes are copied during this period.
mitosis The duplication and separation of a cell's chromosomes; usually followed by cytokinesis.
prophase The first phase of mitosis; when chromosomes coil and sister chromatids become obvious.
metaphase The second phase of mitosis; the chromosomes align by their centromeres across the middle of the spindle.
anaphase The third phase of mitosis; during this phase the daughter chromosomes move to opposite ends of the spindle.
telophase The last phase of mitosis; when sister chromatids reach the ends of the spindle and the nucleus re-forms.
cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm during the process of cell division.
asexual reproduction The production of a new organism without the joining of gametes; reproduction that takes place by mitotic cell division.
sexual reproduction The joining of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote, which develops into a new individual.
meiosis The process whereby one diploid cell forms haploid cells (gametes).
gamete A haploid cell that contains only one of each type of chromosome found in an organism; an egg or sperm
haploid Having only one of each chromosome normally found in the cells of an organism, such as in gametes;human haploid number is 23.
fertilization The formation of a zygote from the union of two gametes.
zygote A diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) The nucleic acid that carries genetic information; usually found in the nucleus.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) A nucleic acid made of a single chain of nucleotides; functions with ribosomes to form proteins
mRNA (messenger RNA) The RNA molecule that transports a coded message from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
transcription The manufacture of a single mRNA strand from a DNA molecule.
protein synthesis The manufacturing of protein inside a cell.
tRNA (transfer RNA) The RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the messenger RNA.
codon A sequence of three nucleotides in a DNA molecule; each codon identifies an amino acid to be used in the protein coded by the DNA.
nucleotide The basic structural unit of DNA and RNA; contains a sugar, a phosphate, and a base.
DNA replication The process of forming two DNA molecules from one original DNA molecule.
Created by: heidio