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History Exam Vocab.

nomad a traveler who travels to oasis to oasis in search of food and water
Arab nomads that speak Arabic
tribe families who travel together and form groups
idol stsatues to represent religious gods
kabah square shaped shrine in which Abraham and Ishmael built
Abu Bakr Muhammad's successor and father-in-law who became caliph for two years until he died at age 61
caliph Term used for the successor of Muhammad and political and military leader of Islam and was not considered a prophet
Shiites A branch of Islam that believes that only relatives of Muhammad's to be his successor therefore Ali, not Abu Bakr, should have been his first successor (Shiites means "Party of Ali")
imam "divinely guided" successor of Muhammad
Sunni They do not believe imam to be divinely guided, believe in elected caliphs, believe all Muslims can be related to Muhammad, follow the Sunna
Muhammad the prophet of God
Qur'an written words that the angel Gabriel told Muhammad
monotheism belief in one god
Allah the Muslim word for "God"
Islam a religion that believes in Allah
hadith collection of things Muhammad did and said
Sunna the hadith and Qur'an together
Medina the place in which Muhammad fled to when he was rejected by Mecca - first place to accept Islam
5 pillars 1) No God but Muhammad and his prophet 2) prayer 5 times a day (washing facing the kabah) 3) alms for the poor 4) fast during Ramadan 5) Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Muslim People who follow the Islam religion
Jihad means struggle (the struggle to resist tempation and evil
Seljuk Turks nomadic Turks from central Asia who conquered the Muslim Empire and ruled in Islamic tradition
Cordoba capital of muslim kingdom and was the center or trade and culture and by 1000, was the most populated city with 450,000 people
Ferdinand (of Aragon) and Isabelle (of Castile) Both had a lot of power so when they got married, they expelled all Muslims from Spain
Mongols People from central Asia who with the Tartars founded a great empire - Their empire flourished between 1200-1500
steppe Treeless plains in central Asia which has winters that are freezing and scorching summers
yurt Tents that were made of felt and easy tot transport
clan Patrilineal family groups in which people were related by kinship and made of 3,4, or 5 generations
Genghis Khan Fled to Mogolia when his father was murdered and in 1206 AD elected khan - he shaped the Mongol army and helped make communications with a written language for soldiers
Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis who ruled 1260-1294 - under his reign, culture flourished and the empire reached zenith during his reign
Constantinople was the great market, one could find all kinds of goods, 3000-4000 shops
Chief Osman a ghazi that conquered and united various lands in Asia Minor around 1326 AD
sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire
Istanbul Capital of the Ottoman empire after Constantinople and had a growing population of 200,000 and was the main trading center of rare beauty
Suleiman In his reign the empire reached Hungary, north Egypt, Algeria, and Mesopotamia
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna Believed that Allah, through Muhammad, wanted him to invade India so from 997-1030 he invaded India 17 times to get their resources
Himalayas fertile plains south of the mountains
Ganges and Indus Rivers Their valleys were the richest in the world
Babur Related to Genghis Khan and in 1527 he defeated the Rajputs - he was well-educated and well liked and built a new Mongol-like empire in northern India
Mughal Empire Babur's empire and Mughal means Mongol in Indian-Persian
Akbar He reigned for 49 years from 1556-1605 and during his reign, he expanded the empire to north and central India and Afghanistan - he developed his own religion, split the empire into provinces, and set the tax system - grandson of Babur
Shah Jahan Ruled 1628-1658 and brought Mughal laws with Muslim laws and created the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal A tomb for Shah Jahan's wife who died in childbirth with her 14th child - it took 22 years and 22,000 workers to complete
Han Dynasty - 206 BC - 220 AD Chinese culture thrived, even for women before it fell in 220 AD when nomadic horsemen took power of it - after it fell chaos ensued for 360 years
Confucianism When the roles of men and women were further separated - RESPECT FOR ELDERS, RESPONSIBILITY TO DUTIES, CIVIL SERVICE, STRING FAMILY LIFE
Buddhism Originated around 530 BC by silk traders - the philosophy teaches to escape suffering by desiring nothing through serious meditation and by 400, most regional kings accepted Buddhism
Yang Jian He was a Buddhist emperor who reunited the Chihnese empire by seizing power and declaring himself emperor and his empire was the Sui Dynasty - built the new capital at Changan and encouraged Daoism
Great Wall Yangdi rebuilt it in 607 and it was made to protect China's farms from nomadic horseman
Jimmu Ninigi's grandson
Shinto A religion in Japan that revolved around nature
Yoritomo Leader of Minamoto who was goven the name "shogun"
shogun meaning "great general"
samurai Warriors
Kamakaze "divine wind"
Zen Form of Buddhism that believes in relaxation and nature
Created by: cknipp