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CT Farmer Test 1

Cells and Tissues - Dr. Farmer - Test 1

Merocrine Secretion Membrane-bound secretory granules in cytoplasm, released via exocytosis from apical cell surface, most common, salivary glands, pancreas
Holocrine Secretion Cells accumulate secretions, die, release contents, high mitotic rate, sebaceous glands
Apocrine Secretions Secretions accumulate in apical cytoplasm, released by pinching off portion of apical region of cell, loss of some cytoplasm and cell membrane, lipid secretion of mammary gland
Serous Acinus Secretion Thin watery with proteins, Pyramidal cells with basal nuclei, Secretory granules in apical cytoplasm, small central lumen
Mucous Acinus Secretion More viscous, high carbs, pyramidal cell with basal nuclei, clear cytoplasm, large central lumen
Mixed Acinus Secretion Mucous acinus with serous demilune, intracellular channels deliver serous secretions to lumen
Alpha Cis
H2O 75 to 85 percent of cell weight, polar bond angles, H bonds between moles, solvent, inert, hydrophilic/phobic, amphipathic
Carbon 4 bonds (covalent), OCHN, single, double, triple bonds, stable high energy required, 4 diff grps - asymmetric C - chiral center
Hydrophobic interactions Interior of moles sequestered from H2O, between nonpolar moles (lipids)
van der Waals forces? Examples? weaker than H bonds, macromolecules where double covalent bonds exist (aromatic rings of amino acids), stacked bases in DNA
Hydrogen bond? Examples? Weaker than covalent/ionic, H and O in separate H2O moles, DNA, proteins (H and N or O), Planar, stables in large moles with H bonds, secondary protein structure
Ionic Bond? Examples? Electronegative element removes e- from other atom, CL, NA, Soluble crystals formed
Nonpolar covalent bond E-s shared equally
Polar covalent bond? Examples? One atom has e- more than the other, O, N or H2O
Covalent bond Shared pair of e-, polar or nonpolar
Trace elements Fe, Zn, Mg, Co (I'M CoZi)
Macronutrients C, H, O, P, N, S (CHOPNS)
Water % of cell 75 to 85
Sphingolipids In membranes, based on sphingosine (amino alcohol), adds long chain FA to form ceramide, Amphipathic
Phospholipids In membranes, Phosphate replaces one FA, Alcohol (sering, ethanolamine, choline, inositol) on phosphate, amphipathic, water-soluble
Triglycerides True fats, glycerol and 3 fatty acids, saturated - all single, unsat - 1 or more double (shape changes), fats - sat, oils - unsat
Lipid Classes Fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, steroids, terpenes (isoprenoids)
Lipids Hydrophobic, soluble in nonpolar (chloroform and ether), hydrocarbon chains with C and H, some amphipathic (phosphate or sugar groups)
Polypeptide Functions Enzymes, Structural, Motor, Transport, Storage, Signal, Receptors, Regulate Gene Expression
Tertiary Structure Long-distance interactions within polypeptide to form multimeric structure (4 subunits like hemoglobin)
Secondary Structure Alpha - helix, Beta - pleated sheet, determined by H bonding
Respiration / Energy Generation Cytoplasm - glycolysis (breakdown 6C glucose to 2 pyruvate (3C) and makes small amount of ATP), Mitochondrial Matrix - TCA Cycle (Pyruvate into acetyl CoA into TCA cycle into ATP, reduces e- attached to NADH+ and FADH2)
Respiration / Energy Generation con't. Inner Membrane - ETS (Proteins transfer e- through ETS carriers to ATPsynthase into large amount of ATP (requires O2)
Golgi Process and package of secreted proteins, integrals, lysosomals, glycosylation of glycoproteins, receives RER proteins via vesicles, process leave in vesicles for cell membrane
Lysosomes Acid phosphatase (breakdown macros), take vacuole in to digest, cell recycling, more than 40 hydrolytic enzymes (lipases, nucleases, proteases, carbohydrases), active in acidic environment (protective mechanism so inactive in cytoplasm)
Mitochondrion Double membrane, cristae - proteins of ETS (carrier proteins and ATPsynthase), circular DNA and ribosomes, matrix - enzymes of TCA cycle and beta-oxidation of fatty acids
Peroxisomes microbodies, kidney and liver cells, contain catalase and peroxidase, generate and breakdown H2O2 into H2O and O2, breakdown (oxidize) long-chain fatty acides (increase to 22C)
Ribosomes Protein synthesis, Ribosomal proteins and rRNA composition, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic, differ though, 2 subunites (Large and small), found in mitochondria, cytoplasm, attached to RER
Cytoskeleton Give shape, cellular movement (internal - chromosomes in cell division, external - cilia and flagella), provide binding sites for organelles, control vesicular traffic, microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
Microtubules alpha and beta tubulin, generated at MTOC, cilia and flagella, positioning of organelles, movement of cells, movement of organelles, changes in cell shape (embryogenesis)
Microfilaments Actin, g- (globular) actin, f- (filamentous) actin, muscle contraction, amoeboid movement of phagocytes, cytoplasmic streaming, cleavage furrow in cell division
Intermediate Filaments Fibrous, more diverse than others (composition), differ in each cell type, mechanical strength, stable once synthesized
Protein production nucleus transcribes mRNA, RER translates polypeptide into lumen, adds sugar residues, transports vesicles to Golgi, Golgi completes glycosylation if needed, transport/secretory vesicles carry protein to plasma membrane
ER Rough - ribosomes, protein synthesis; Smooth - no ribosomes, lipids and steroid synthesis, drug detox, sequesters Ca ions in muscle cells
Membrane proteins Amphipathic, integral (transmembrane), glucose; Extrinsic (peripheral) - cytoplasmic or extracellular; Glycoproteins - sugar residues outside cell, recognition sites, immunity;enzymes(protein/ATPsynthase), transport (glucose),receptors (hormones)
Nucleus Holds genetic info, nuclear envelope, DNA, nucleolus, replicates DNA, transcribes DNA to mRNA for protein synthesis
Nuclear envelope Double membrane (outer layer continuous with ER), lipid bilayer, nuclear pores (passage between nucleus and cytoplasm)
DNA 2 complementary strands of nucelotides with H bonds between bases, chromatin - DNA with histone proteins (hetero - condensed, more histones, inactive; eu - pale, less histones, active), forms chromosomes
Nucleolus Synthesis and organization of ribosomes
Plasma membrane Controls passage in and out, barrier between internal and external environment, maintains ion and charge gradients, phospholipid bilayer (fluid mosaic model)
tRNA transfers amino acids that match RNA template
Regulatory RNA Gene formation
rRNA makes ribosomes
mRNA makes proteins
RNA Adenine and Uracil, Cytosine and Guanine, single strand, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, regulatory RNA
Uses of nucleic acids storage - DNA, expression - RNA, utilizable chemical energy in cell
DNA Adenine and Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine, double-strand
Nucleic Acids Made of nucleotides
Purines Larger than pyrimidines, Adenine or Guanine
Pyrimidines Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Adjacents joined by phosphodiester bond (between phosphate and sugar), bond provides directionality (5 prime phosphate, 3 prime hydroxyl, always 5 to 3)
Adhesive junctions Zonula adherens, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes
Zonula adherens Cadherin (Ca++ dependent protein) of adjacent cells bind, actin microfilaments in cortex anchor cadherin
Desmosomes Similar to zonula adherens, disc-shaped, cytoplasmic intermediate filaments anchor proteins
Hemidesmosomes Integrins, not cadherins, attached to ECM
Gap junctions Communications, passage of ions and small moles, connexons (6 subunits of connexin), cardiac and smooth muscle, allow multiple cells to act as a single unit
Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides with glycosidic bond, sucrose (table sugar - glucose and fructose), lactose (galactose and glucose)
Stratified cuboidal epithelium 2 layers of cuboidal cells, sweat gland ducts
Stratified columnar epithelium 2 layers - upper is columnar, large duct of salivary gland, palpebral conjunctiva (inner lining of eyelid)
Transitional epithelium Mutliple layers, superficial dome cells (rounded to flattened) based on distention, renal calyces to urethra
Glandular epithelium Outgrowth of surface epithelium, exocrine - ducts on surface, endocrine - no ducts on surface
Unicellular Endocrine Glands Enteroendocrine cells of digestive tract
Unicellular exocrine glands Goblet cells of digestive and repiratory tracts
Multicellular exocrine glands Simple (unbranched ducts) or compound (branched ducts), acinar or alveloar - round saclike, tubular 0 elongated, tubuloalveolar - mixed
Multicellular exocrine types Simple tubular - crypts of Lieberkuhn (colon), simple coiled tubular - sweat glands, simple branched tubular - fundic glands of stomach, simple alveloar - none in humans, simple branched alveolar - sebaceous glands
Multicellular exocrine types con't. Compound tubular - cardiac glands of stomach, compound alveolar - pancreas, compound tubuloalveolar - salivary glands
Cell Junctions - What are they? Functions? Modifications of plasma membrane, provide anchoring of adjacent cells to each other, provide cytoplasmic continuity
Tight Junctions Seal cell-lined compartments, fuse adjacent plasma membranes, prevent water-solubles from passing through ECM, protein strands fuse together, maintains polarity (proteins stay at apical or basal / lateral surface), disrupted by Ca concentration decreasing
Stratified squamous epithelium Superficial squamous layer, keratinized (skin) - anucleate - waterproof barrier, nonkeratinized - living, nucelate, vocal cords, esophagus, vagina, oral cavity
Simple squamous epithelium Cobblestones, alveoli, parietal layer (Bowman's capsule). thin loop of henle
Simple cuboidal epithelium Central nucleus, thyroid follicles, proximal, distal, collecting kidney tubules, small salivary glands, germinal epithelium of ovary
Simple columnar epithelium Elongated nucleus, basally located, papillary ducts of kidneys, intestinal and gall bladder lining, fallopian tubes
Pseudostratified epithelium All cells rest on basal lamina, not all reach apical surface, different heights of nuclei, frequently ciliated, tracheal, brochial, bronchiole lining, epidydimal and urethral (male) lining
Characteristics of epithelial tissue Avascular, contiguous, little extracellular matrix, polarized, undergo renewal, basal lamina (basement membrane)
Epithelial functions Selectively permeable barrier, protection, secretion, absorption, transcellular transport, sensation
Mesoderm forms? Endothelium of blood vessels, mesothelium of cavities, kidney tubules, reproductive lining
Nucleotides Nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine), pentose sugar, phosphate
Endoderm forms? Respiratory and digestive lining, digestive glands
Internal regulation Cyclins, maturation promoting factor (MPF)
External regulation Growth factors bind to specific receptors on cell surface, send signals to components
G0 In cells that can exit cycle for varying lengths of time, cardiac and neurons permanently exit, hepatocytes about 1 year, entered from G1
M Mitosis, 1 to 2 hours
G2 Gap 2 or post-synthetic, 3 to 6 hours, tubulin synthesis for microtubules, checkpoint for DNA repair
S Synthetic phase, DNA synthesis, 6 to 8 hours, conservative replication maintains genetic integrity, centrioles required for mitotic spindle replicated
G1 Variable in length, Gap 1 or pre-synthetic phase, cell growth, protein synthesis, checkpoint prior to S (favorable for division? DNA intact?)
Anaphase Chromatids move to opposite poles
Metaphase Chomosomes migrate to equatorial plate, separate into sister chromatids, chromatids attach to opposite centrosomes via microtubules
Prophase Chromatin condenses - chromosomes visible, nuclear envelope breaks down, centrosomes (pair of centrioles) separate to opposite poles, microtubules connect centrioles to chromosomes
Karyokinesis Nuclear division, PMAT
MPF Maturation Promoting Factor, M-Cdk, Cyclin M plus kinase, rapid increase in concentration, triggers cell mitosis
Telophase Nuclear envelope regenerated, chromosomes disperse
Cytokinesis Cytoplasm division, band of actin filaments form at equatorial plate, band constriction separates cytoplasm, occurs during anaphase, completes in telophase
Apoptosis Programmed cell death, embryonic development, normal reorganization of tissues, developeing hand and foot, adult tissue - balance cell division, removes cells that are damaged or ineffectivem nucleus condenses and breaks up, cell surface blebs,no inflam
Cyclins Bind to specific kinases (Cdks - cyclin-dependent kinases) to regulate interphase, concentration increases during interphase
What are tissues? Group of cells that carry out similar functions, includes cells and ECM
Tissue types? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Types of epithelial tissue Surface, glandular
Surface epithelium Arranged in cell sheets, covers surfaces, lines cavities
Glandular epithelium Skin, mouth lining, nose, anus
Microvilli About 1 micrometer long, covered with glycocalys (sugar linked to lipids and proteins), brush (striated) border, apical surfaces of absorptive cells, core of actin arranged longitudinally, not motile
Stereocilia Long length (misnamed), long branched microvilli, increase surface area
Cilia/flagella About 5 to 10 micrometers or longer, axoneme, 9 doublets of MT around 2 single MT (9 +2), axonemal dynein - motor, ATP required, supportive proteins, basal body (cyto base of axoneme) 9 triplets, no central (9 +0)
Mitosis Cell division
Interphase All other cell events, variable in length
Phases of cell cycle G1, S, G2, M, G0
Primary Structure Amino acid sequence
Polypeptides Chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds, specific order for each, translation (protein synthesis), monomeric, multimeric
Polar charged - #? Examples? Basic (3) - Lysine, Acidic (2) - Aspartame, Glutamine
Polar Uncharged - #? Examples? 6, hydrophilic, Cysteine
Beta Trans
Nonpolar hydrophobic - #? Examples? 9 - lack O or N in functional group, Leucine, Tryptophan
Amino Acids 20 - peptide (covalent) bond between amine and carboxyl group, nonpolar hydrophobic, polar uncharged, polar charged, D- and L- forms
Protein structure Amino acids, poly peptides
Principle of self-assembly Inherent in macromolecules, proteins as translated on ribosome, onley need polypeptide for folding and configuration, assisted for larger more complex (more than 1 polypeptide), requires chaperone (not part of, transiently binds and prevents interaction)
Glycolipids In membranes, carb replaces phosphate, amphipathic, outer surface of plasma membrane
Steroids 3 6C rings and 1 5C ring, cholesterol (promotes fluidity), amphipathic (HO at 3C), membranes, source of androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids (cortisol) and mineral corticoids (aldosterone)
Examples of monosaccharides Aldosugars - terminal CO, Ketosugars (internal CO), Hexose (6C - glucose, straight or ring), Pentose (5C - Ribose or deoxyribose, nucleic acid component)
Monosaccharides Monomers of simple sugars, glycosidic bonds
Structural polysaccharides Cellulose - plants only
Storage polysaccharides Starch - plants, glycogen - animals
Polysaccharides Storage adn structure, mono- or di-
Terpenes aka Isoprenoids, derived from isoprene (5C), synthesis of vitamin A, CoQ, carotenoid pigments
What occurs during polymerization? Releases H2O (condensation), must have reactive H and OH (adds here), requires ATP and phosphate group, transfer RNA, directionality
Polymerization Synthesis from smaller molecules
Made of? Proteins? Nucleic Acids? Lipids? Polysaccharide? Amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids with glycerol, sugars
Created by: lkeith