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science 8 final study guide.

Define parrallel circuit. a circuit that has 2 or more separate paths for electtrons.
define mixture. when 2 pure substsanes are commined so that each substances retains its own properties.
where is the strongest magnetic field located? magnetic poles.
list 4 examples of alternative energy resources. wind, solar, water, bionmass.
what is the law of cconservation of matter? matter cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms.
how are the freezing point and the melting point of a sustance related? the freezing point of a substance is the same as the melting point of the same substace.
define chemical property. a characteristic of matter that allows it to change to something new.
where electrons located in the atom? in the energy levels of an atom around the nucleus.
define inertia. the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
list and define each type of friction. static-prevents an object from moving. sliding-slows down an object that slides. rolling-occurs when an object rolls across a surface.
define potential energy and give an example. energy and object has due to its position. Ex:stretched rubber land.
define lever. a bar that is free to pivot about a fixed point.
define heat. thermal energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature.
list the electromagnetic wave in order, starting with longest wavelength. radio-mico-infrared-visible light-ultraviolet-xray-gamma.
through which media does sound travel fastest? solid.
define transparent and give and example. object that allow nearly all the light that strikes them to pass through. Ex:glass.
define circuit. the steady flow of electrons through a conductor.
list 3 characterics of nonmetals. Gases at room temperature. Bad conductors of heat. Bad conductors of electrity.
why do object float? the density of the object is less than the density of the liquid it is in.
list 3 examples of physical changes. melting, evaporating, and solidifying.
what do you need to know to describe velocity? speed & direction.
define balance force. forces that are equal in size but opposite.
what is Newton's 3rd Law? for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.
define inclined plane. A slanted surface used to raise and object.
define wedge. an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides.
define convetion and give an example. transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles. Ex:boiling water.
how are sounds produce? a vibrating object.
define wave. rhythmic disturbance that carries energy, NOT matter.
Why are atoms electricity neutral? there are equal number of protons & electrons.
How do magnets atrract one another? opposite attract->north pole of one magnet attract south pole of another.
what kind of energy does a buring fire produce? radiant & thermal.
list 3 characteristics of metals. solid at room temperature(execpt mercury). good conductors of heat electricity. malleable & ductile.
where is the mass of an atom found? in the nucleus: the protons & neutrons.
what is the equatin for speed? speed = distance/time.
what is Newton's 1st Law? object remains at rest or in motion unless a net force act on it.
what does a circuit breaker do? a device designed to open an overloaded circuit & prevent overheating.
list 3 ways work is done. pushing something. pulling something. lifting something.
define series circuit. a path created for a current that allows only one route for the current.
What is a simple machine? list all types. a device that does work with only one movement & changes the size or direction of a face. lever-wedge-pulley-screw-wheel & axle-inclined plaine.
define electric current. the flow of electric charge.
what is power? the rate at which work is done.
define loudness. the human perception of the energy a wave carries.
liat 3 examples of heterogeneous mixture. vegetable soup. italian salad dressing. chocolate chip cookies.
define mechanical advantage. the amont by which a machine multiplies an input force.
list 3 examples of physical prpoerties. shape. size. density.
define compound machine. when two or more simple machines work together.
how do you calculate density? density=mass/volume.
define radiation and give an example. transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. Ex:information lamps at restaurants.
list 3 examples of chemicals properties. ability to burn. ability to react with oxygen. toxicity.
define air resistance. upward force acting on an object falling through the air.
define static charge. the buildup of electric charges on an object.
define matter. anything that has mass & takes up space.
list 3 examples of chemical charge. burning paper. digestion of a hamburger. iron rusting.
on a speed-time graph, what does a horizontal line show? shows the change in speed is zero.
define momentum. a measure of how hard it is to stop an object.
what is Newton's 2nd Law? force = mass x acceleration.
whhat happens to materials when they get hot? they expand.
define rarefraction. a place where molecules are far apart.
define reflection. when light bounces off a surface.
what is the speed of the EM wave? 300,000 km/s.
define wave frequency. the number of waves that pass a certain point in one second.
define medium. the material in which a wave travels.
why do objects appear red? thay absorb all colors but red, which is reflected.
define refraction. when waves change speed when they pass from one medium into another.
Created by: baseball fanatic
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