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AP Hum Geo Ch1

fieldwork The study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places.
human geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.
physical geography One of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth’s natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
spatial Pertaining to space on the Earth’s surface; sometimes used as a synonym for geographic.
spatial distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
pattern The design of a spatial distribution (e.g. scattered or concentrated).
region The third theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; an area on the Earth’s surface marked by degree of formal functional or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon.
place The fourth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; uniqueness of a location.
sense of place State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
perception of place Belief or “understanding” about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures.
movement The fifth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; the mobility of people, goods and ideas across the surface of the planet.
spatial interaction See complementarity and intervening opportunity.
complementarity A condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw material and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
intervening opportunity The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sales farther away.
distance Measurement of the physic al space between two places.
accessibility The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other
connectivity The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network.
landscape The overall appearance of an area. Most landscapes are comprised of a combination of natural and human-induced influences.
cultural landscape The visible imprint of a human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
sequent occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
cartography The art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout and design. Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns.
reference maps Maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude.
thematic maps Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
absolute location The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0% to 90% north or south of the equator, and Longitude, 0% to 180% east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich
global positioning system (GPS) Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features.
geocaching A hunt for a cache, the Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates which are placed on the Internet by other geocachers.
relative location The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility, and connectivity affect relative location.
mental map Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual’s perception, impression, and knowledge of that space.
activity (action) space The space within which daily activity occurs.
generalized map A map that helps us see general trends, but we cannot see all cases of a given phenomenon.
remote sensing A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
geographic information systems (GIS) A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
rescale Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative (e.g., use of the Internet to generate interest on a national or global scale for a local position or initiative).
formal region A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity and is included in a government’s Gross National Product (GNP); as opposed to an informal economy.
functional region A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it.
perceptual region A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity. For example, in the United States, “the South” and “the mid-Atlantic region” are perceptual regions.
culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton’s definition; hundreds of others exist.
culture trait A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a tuban.
culture complex A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
cultural hearth Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
independent invention The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other.
cultural diffusion The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
time-distance decay The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin.
cultural barrier Prevailing, cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
expansion diffusion The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
contagious diffusion The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person – analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
hierarchical diffusion A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or people. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leap frogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less i
stimulus diffusion A form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
relocation diffusion Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by involves
geographic concept Way of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions.
environmental determinism The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspect of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism.
isotherm Line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values.
possibilism Geographic viewpoint - a response to determinism – that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. Nonetheless possibilities view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that lim
cultural ecology The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
political ecology An approach to studying nature- society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
Created by: KT's AP HG

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