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Indian Studies Final
Questions from her online discussion board
|T/F According to the Yaqui People strong feelings cause disease.
|T/F Sin can cause disease, and the disease may not only fall on the sinner but on their children and grandchildren.
|What are the Yaqui’s five methods of curing disease?
|Seataka, prayer, medicine, massage and diet.
|The seven dimensions of healing according to the Struthers Nursing Model are caring, traditions, respect, connection, holism, spirituality, and _______________. Pg 265 Hint: sharing and breaking barriers builds this dimension.
|Historical trauma has no effect on physical health. True or False?
|Spirituality is an important dimension because it Pg. 268 a.utilizes cultural methods to help release pain and wounding from historical trauma. b.creates a sense of identity c.A and B
|The Shynider Act of 1921 offered?
|Funds to federally recognize tribes.
|Health care is getting worse but funds are staying the same. True or False.
|Why was it said by the Native Americans to not get sick after June?
|Because many Indian health services ran out of funding and cannot run the clinics any longer.
|The man who wrote Navajo Boy is identified as Bill Kennedy.
|False. It was Bill Kennedy's father.
|___________________ history in pictures reveals an incredible and ongoing struggle for environmental justice. *HINT: a name of a woman in the documentary
|Elsie Mae Begay’s
|The name of the long lost brother in the Navajo Boy film was:
|John Wayne Cly
|Give an example of how histoical trauma can lead to imbalance and disease.
|It can lead to substance abuse and/or Type 2 Diabetes.
|How do western medicine and indigenous healers go about healing historical trauma differently?
|Western medicine would prescribe prescriptions, counseling or diagnostic testing. Indigenous healers focus on the cause of the illness and perform ceremonies.
|According to Dougherty, 7 other people have died at ceremonial sweat lodges since the year?
|It is extremely _______ to conduct sweat lodge ceremonies without the proper training, facing possible _______.
|Limiting the number of people inside a sweat lodge is critical because the person leading the event is supposed to carefully monitor the mental and physical condition of each participant. True or False?
|Father Toledo proposed going so far as to torture El Cojo. True or False?
|Why did other Indians start to attack Catholic clergy in the southwest?
|They didn't want to give up their old traditions and beliefs.
|Genizaros spent most of their lives as______________, but were not considered slaves because theoretically, when their term was completed, they could be set free.
|Due to the change in diet caused by the treaties with the U.S, what diseases have developed within the navajo people?
|Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Disease
|Health-care resources provided by the U.S. for Native American people are enough to provide proper health care for native american people. True or False?
|Traditonal indegenous medicine is slowly being _____________ within western medicine. (Hint:Is it being shunned?)
|In the Navajo culture there is a diminished amount of practicing chanters and a lack of recruitment of young men.
|Pentecostal Christians chose Christianity over Traditional and NAC healing because of unpleasant effects of the ________ experience such as nausea and anxiety.
|The Navajo transition from a pastoralism toward a wage-labor economy create opportunities such as:
|Better education, women in influential public roles and economic opportunities.
|What does the maze represent in He is the one who taught the O'odham?
|The main singers that lead the O'odham blessings are called _____?
|The songs that the O'odham sing are for the whole earth. True of False?
|What was the name of the 1950’s film they showed clips from in the Navajo Boy documentary?
|What was the problem with the Navajo land forcing them to put their child up for adoption?
|Too much radiation.
|The Navajo felt exploited and burdened by the greed of the white people. True or False?
|The mineral that the white people were mining for was?
|The name of the most photographed navajo woman was _____________.
|Peyote can be chewed, brewed into a drink, or rolled into pellets to be swallowed.
|Peyote is a sacred ________ to the Native People.
|Peyote is used to induce:
|Historical Trauma can affect the psychological, social, economical, intellectual, political, physical and spiritual aspects to Native Americans lives. True or False?
|_____ ______ is one of the most common types of Historical Trauma amongst Native Americans. (*Hint: has to do with alcohol and drugs)
|One of the 5 "R's" is present in the Native Nursings "Seven dimensions", which "R" is it?
|Does the Native Americans history with the United States meet the requirements of the 1948 Geneva Convention definition of genocide? True or False?
|As a result of all this we have historical trauma, which we define as _____________ and _____________ across generations, including one's own lifespan, because everything up to a minute ago is history.
|Cumulative Emotional - Psychological Wounding
|What is not a way to numb the pain?
|The ________ is the largest Indian reservation in America.
|The mining company told the native workers that working in the mines could cause radiation from the uranium. True or False?
|All of the following are true of the film the return of the Navajo boy except: a. it took 1 week to film b. it was 29 minutes long c. it had no sound d. the actors were given abundant payment compensation and a copy of the film
|D. The actors were given abundant payment compensation and a copy of the film.
|Do the Pueblo Indian elders believe in the desecration of Earth?
|No, they believe that mankind is not even closely comparable to the earth itself. We can continue to destroy it but in the end we will only be destroying the human race and the Earth will remain.
|What does the Giant Serpent signify and what is his story?
|He is the Laguna peoples “sacred messenger from the Fourth World below”. He used to live by a beautiful lake, until the neighbors got jealous. The neighbors then came and took all the water. The snake then left never to be seen again.
|Many native american stories contain either woman or men being changed into animals, goddesses and gods, and spirits, which are hard for people with _______ minds to understand.
|Violent crime rates among native women are the highest among women of other ethnicities. True or False?
|Trivial people see things as alive, intelligent, and self aware. True or False?
|Kasti Cook mentions a commitment towards woman which includes reproductive and environmental justice agendas. True or false?
|What's tool is useful, but has its limits?
|The reason to save indigenous peoples is because they are the ones who can relate back to ________.
|What issues did midwives attend to?
|Childbirth, herbal remedies, breast feeding and parenting.
|Indigenous people did not give birth to their babies with the assistance of caring women from within their neighborhoods. True or False?
|False. They did have women from their neighborhood help them with their birth.
|Indigenous people believe that ____________ breastfeeding is important and hospitals lack the understanding of this special process between the mother and child.
|Native Americans believe sweat contains curative powers. True or False?
|Sweat lodges are also commonly known as,___________.
|Sweat lodges are known for restoring balance in all of the following EXCEPT: A)mental B)social C)physical D)emotional
|1.According to Donald Denetdeal, in the Navajo thinking, there are four basic areas to make one healthy. Those four basic areas are ______, ______, ______, and ______________.
|Mind, body, spirit and environment
|From the example given by Larry Todachinee, it is inherently inappropriate to NOT ask a Navajo person what causes illness.
|3.The Navajo theory of illness is that illness is caused by:
|Falling out of harmony with the forces of nature.
|According to Cajete in his article "Spirit of the Game", all of the following are integrated into Native games EXCEPT: a) philosophy b) ritual c) dance d) self loathing e) nutrition
|D) self loathing
|As described by Cajete in his "Spirit of the Game" article, Native games did NOT present therapeutic properties for curing and preventing illnesses. True or False?
|As stated in Cajete's article, "Spirit of the Game", Native games were meant to combine mind, body, and spirit to develop a deeper awareness for________ and the meaning of one's________.
|According to the article, _______ _________ literature is the group of literature and body of work that is most relevant to native people suffering from historical trauma because it is addressing trauma for a group of people.
|Native people's history meets the United Nations 1948 Geneva Convention definition on genocide. True or False?
|Which of the follow are not a historical trauma response feature as stated by the White Bison article? a)Depression and psychic numbing b)Post Traumatic Stress c)Survivor guilt d)Fixation to trauma
|B) post traumatic stress
|During the development of a baby, Navajo believe the human travels through these worlds:
|Black, Blue, Yellow, White
|The Emergence Story, within which child development teachings lie, reaffirms the fact that science and spirituality are inseperable in the Navajo way of life. True or False?
|On the birth day, the child leaves the womb and enters the present world, also called the ________ _______.
|In general, the government has done an excellent job of adhering to the quality of healthcare promised to indigenous peoples via treaties.
|Under federal healthcare, most Native Americans have daily access to the following: a)podiatrists b)eye doctors c)dentists d)none of the above
|d) none of the above
|Native American healthcare as provided by the federal government is:
|Underfunded by about 55%
|It is imporant to slowly move from one area of extreme temperature to another to prevent getting sick.
|Strong ________ like jealousy, rage and fear can cause illness according to the Yaqui community.
|According to the Yaqui community, the seataka takes the form of: (a) plants (b) animals (c) people (d) nature (e) all of the above
|e) all of the above
|At the five-day "spiritual warrior" experience in Angel Valley, participants had to pay:
|Limiting the number of people inside a sweat lodge is critical due to the monitoring if mental and physical conditions of the participants. True or False?
|Natives only use __________ materials in the construction of a sweat lodge.
|Drugs abuse is a common problem amongst Navajo’s on the reservation. Which of the following is an example of a “polysubstance”, abused across all age groups in the Navajo community? A)Cocaine B)Marijuana C)Glue D)Methamphetamine
|Hohzo is the Navajo concept often interpreted as “evil”. True or False?
|False, it is actually “peace and harmony”.
|The Navajo alcohol-related death rate at its highest was once ____ times higher than that of the rest of the United States.
|In Look to the Mountain, Cajete introduces the concept of ________________, “the expression of life in relationship to the environment and to one's relatives, tribe and community.”
|A widespread belief that children came from springs, mountains, or caves embedded in the Earth where they existed as spirits before birth strengthens the connection Indians have with the Earth. True or False?
|A sense of relatedness to the natural world came from all of the following EXCEPT: A. A spiritual orientation and responsibility for maintaining a conscious relationship with things human life depended on for survival. B.The observation that everything
|Which of the following are symptoms of historical trauma? A. Poor Emotional Tolerance B. Psychic Numbing C. Hypervigilance D. Substance Abuse E. All the above
|E. All of the Above
|The memory of what happened to Native American ancestors remains in their genes. True or False?
|The last ____ years in the United States have left massive wounds spanning generations within Native Americans.
|In the 1970's, the IHS doctors were accused of sterilizing half of the Native American women who came into the clinics that were of childbearing age.This was eventually linked to the government, in hopes of controlling the native population.True or False?
|In 1921, the Snider Act:
|Recognized the responsibility of the US government for the native genocide and their obligation to follow through with the treaties.
|What kinds of problems do the IHS clinics, such as the Porcupine Clinic face? A) serious underfunding from the government B) doctors quitting C) an increase of patients D) loss of basic services and coverage over time. E) all the above
|E) All of the Above
|What is sweat and steam always associated with?
|What type of healing are the sweat lodges used for?
|They are used for holistic healing to keep emotional and physical balance
|In "Sweat Lodge" by Bruchac, a common theme behind each story was that the sweat lodges brought humans back to life which translates into how they are used to cure and keep mind and body in balance.
|Because of the uranium incident from 1945 – 1988 around how many abandoned uranium mines are there?
|The Native American people think that nuclear power is a power that comes from_______; and it is a symbol of___________of modern industrial society.
|abuse, ultimate disrespect
|3) Who were the Hero Twins? Who were they born from? What did they do that made them significant?
|The hero twins were twins born from Changing Woman/Mother Earth;they went through many trials and gained much wisdom from supernatural beings to acquire the skills to kill the monsters. The Twins slew yeetso – “Big Monster".
|The Genizaros got their religion from:
|A mixture of beliefs
|Any belief that ran counter to catholic theology was considered ______ .
|Simply using herbs for healing or hurting someone would result in severe punishment by the Spanish. True or False?
|False, the use of herbs by itself did not result in severe punishment even when the purpose was to kill someone.
|Peyote is a sacred sacrament to the Native People.True or False?
|President Nixon and Kennedy both went on the record to _______ the sovereign right of Native Americans.
|What type of plant was peyote?
|Navajo people refer to uranium as “Leetso”. The Navajo people see uranium as a ________________.
|Today, the Navajo Nation has about one thousand unreclaimed uranium mines. True or False?
|The Navajo people created a “superhero” that received supernatural powers from radiation. What is the name of this superhero?
|In The Sacred: Ways of Knlowledge, Sources of Life most Native Americans believe that it is a necessary part of The Sacred to show that we are only human and must accept our weakness through Humor. True or False?
|Which of the following is another Native name for a Medicine Man? a) Shaman b) Singer c) Doctor d) Both a and b
|d)both a and b
|The expression of life in relation to enviornment and one's relatives, tribe, and community is considered a _____________ in Native American culture.
|Because Father Toledo strongly protested Indigenous beliefs, he never indulged in their practices for any reason. True or False?
|Herbs were used in the book for the which reasons?
|Spiritual rituals, Love spells and healing
|According to the priest, all non-christain ceremonies were a sign of a pact with the ________.
|__________is defined as cumulative and collective emotional and psychological injury over the life span and across generations, resulting from a cataclysmic history of genocide.
|Historical trauma can affect the psychological, social, economic, intellectual, political, physical, and spiritual realms of Native American people. True or False?
|Due to Historical Trauma, nurses for the Native American population must integrate key concepts into their practice. Which concept should they not use? a)Respect b)Holism c)Empathy d)Traditions
|In Spirit of the Game by Cajete, he states that all of the following are games played by Indigenous people except for: A) Lacrosse B) Gambling C) Marbles D) Horse Racing
|Native games integrated the body, mind and spirit towards developing a greater awareness of others. True or False?
|False, They worked towards developing a greater awareness of the SELF.
|In Spirit of the Game, Cajete states that ______________ create a positive foundation for applying our creative selves physically and emotionally from like long learning.
|How much older than the average private American health care facility is the average IHS facility?
|More than 3 times as old
|Why did the government create IHS and is required to provide health care for Indians?
|In exchange for land, written in treaties first singed in the 1800's.
|Federal prison inmates recieve more money for health care than the IHS does. True or False?
|Theraputic process for healing historical trauma must include culturally appropriate strategies and skills. True or False?
|Which is not a contributing factor of healing according to the seven dimensions in the conceptual model of Nursing in the Native American Culture?
|What is one symptom of historical trauma?
|Substance abuse, poor emotional tolerance, fixation on trauma, loss of identity, depression.
|Contact with Europeans, or post colonial contact, has caused intergenerational stress and historical trauma in Native Americans spanning many nations. True or False?
|New diseases introduced through European contact include:
|Smallpox, measles and cholera
|Caring, traditions, respection, connection, holism, trust, and spirituality are the ________.
|Seven Dimensions of Healing
|Trauma is a way of life and you can unconsciously recreate it. True or False?
|______________is a trauma repsonse feauture talked about by Paulo Freire. It has also been spoken about as an identification with the aggressor.
|Symptoms of an individual trying to numb their pain include:
|Low self esteem, victim identity, anger, self-destructive behavior, substance abuse.
|Australian Aborigines have also been developing diabetes. True or False?
|What are the three age-old teachings that are considered necessary to living a health life?
|Running, rising early and praying.
|As a result of __________________, a lot of Native American people seem to be disconnected from their Navajo traditions and teachings.
|When you say something aloud you put all kinds of events in motion. True or False?
|Of the three religious healing traditions that coexist within the contemporary Navajo health care system,the Native American Church and the Pentecostal Christianity are more actively involved in the treatment of alcohol and substance abuse than Traditiona
|In Jesus, Peyote, and the Holy People,the Traditional Chanters had many traditional ceremonies to treat alcohol and substance abuse.
|The nearest Navajo approach to the concept of sin is____________, lacking control.
|being out of order
|Cajete, in his article, “Singing Waters” shows us that the indigenous people of the Americas express their relationship to the environment by the following term:
|Cajete uses the deer dance as an example of how Native Americans show respect for Nature. True or False?
|The ______________ was the “First Doctor, First Visionary, First Dreamer, First Psychologist, First Teacher and First Artist”. He also was the primary healer for indigenous people.
|What are the 7 dimensions Natives Practice?
|Caring, traditions, respect, holisim, trust, and spirtulaity.
|There is a traditional ceremony to treat alcohol and substance abuse. True or False?
|Who would you see to become healed for certain "Historical Trauma"?
|Special Clinic that deals with Trauma Disorders
|According to the article Seeking Life: Definitions of Religion and the Sacred what is one thing most Native American people have in common when it comes to their traditions of sacred knowledge?
|Existence of unseen powers.
|All things are dependent on one another and Navajo apply this concept by believing that everything, including humans, are both male and female. True or False?
|Sacred knowledge is responsible for teaching Native Americans_________and_________.
|According to the Huichol tribe in the film, they believed that the peyote was given to them to help them understand the world that they lived in. True or False?
|Which of the following below is not one of the usages of Peyote? A)Healing B)Higher level of understanding C)Protection D)Celebration E)As a Narcotic drug
|E) Narcotic Drug
|In the 1990 Smith case, the U.S Supreme Court __________ protection of the First Amendment Religious Liberty to the sacrament use of __________ for Native Americans.
|In the Navajo Emergence Story, child birth ends with the emergence into the white world. True or False?
|In the Blue World, elders say that it's the parent's duty to______ and _______ to their developing child daily.
|Talk and Sing
|What must NOT be done during the four worlds to ensure that the child is in perfect human form and sound spirit and mind?
|A Navajo Ceremony lasts ________ days when a girl comes of age.
|At what age does a girl have her Kinaalda?
|11-14 years old
|During her Kinaalda, a girl must run 3 times a day towards the east because this is her way of introducing herself to the holy people.
|In sacred rituals, such as the Kinaalda, men are the nurturers and work together with the women for the completion of the ceremony. True or False?
|During the Kinaalda ceremony which of the choices below is NOT performed: A) Running three times each day B) Not eating too much salt or sugar, or getting too much sleep C) Recieving, but not giving D) Renewal and responsibility
|C) Receiving but not giving
|The Kinaalda ceremony is a ceremony to honor and guide an individual's transition form _______hood to ________hood.
|Childhood to Adulthood
|An important element in a girl's/women's learning to be a medicinewomen is the necessity to pay teacher before attempting to learn. True or False?
|While many families believe/want to have the ________ performed for their young girl's, in many cases the mother no longer knows the ceremonies.
|At about what age does a grandmother begin to instruct her granddaughter in becoming a medicine women?
|12-13 years old
|Medicine men refuse to work with Western trained doctors. True or False?
|The function of a ___________ is to discover not only the cause of illness but also recommend the treatment to be used.
|Traditional diagnoses are:
|Done with assistance
|The term “Genizaros” refers to a mixed group of displaced Indians, typically purchased as indentured servants for New Mexico households. True or False?
|Father Toledo had mixed emotions about the curandera ceremonies and practices. Which of these was the main reason given in the text for this?
|He received healing from a curandera in order to be cleansed of certain afflictions caused by supposed witchcraft.
|The Genizaro Indians used a number of herbs for various purposes explained in the book. Curanderas most often used herbs for _______, while others were accused of __________ through the use of herbs and/or ceremonies.
|What is the Purpose of the Saguaro Cactus Ceremony in the article "He is the one who taught the O'odham"? a. To clease the body b. To clease the land c. To bring the rain d. all of the above
|D) all of the above
|In the article "He is the one who taught the O'odham" many people were killed returning home after going to town to drink, and/or buy alcohol. True or False?
|I'itoi, the older brother known for teaching the Oodahm built his house in a field of _____________ to prevent the bad medicine men from killing him.
|Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) captures the same concepts as Historical Trauma Theory.True or False?
|Which of the choices below is NOT a major component for the psychoeducational intervention for Historical Trauma? (pg.5) -Confront the trauma and embrace our history -Understand the trauma -Adapt to a different culture so trauma will gradually dissap
|Adapt to a different culture so trauma will gradually disappear.
|Why did the mining company want to move the village?
|Because the village was located where the richest uranium ore deposits were located.
|What do Pueblo communal systems value the most?
|Cooperation and Non Aggression
|Corn meal, pollen, turquoise and red pollen were placed on the snake’s tail as an offering of spirit food. True or False?
|There is a traditional ceremony to treat alcohol and substance abuse. True or False?
|Some "researchers have noted that __________ participation in peyote meetings is correlated with a __________ in Traditional Navajo ceremonies in some regions of the reservation."
|All of the above are positive social determinants of health except? a. hope; b. culture/traditions; c. community ties; d. fear
|The ____________within the rug that's woven represents the continuation of life. It allows the _____not to be trapped, symbolizing continuation.
|The young girl runs 3 times a day and runs far to have a long life. True or False?
|What does sweet cake in the Kinaalda ceremony not symbolize?
|Strength throughout one's life.
|Natives are at a higher risk for obtaining diabetes. True or False?
|Examples of cultural buffers include:
|identity, culture and spiritual coping
|Native women are at a decreased risk of experiencing physical and sexual assault. True or False?
|_____________has been related to psychological distress, anxiety, poor physical health and high blood pressure.
|These Native peoples living in the U.S. boundaries have a diabetes rate over 50 % higher than other Native peoples?
|The beings who regularly inhabit the universe of power:
|Which of the following is not a female figure that reflects the sacred and central positions that women have held among INdigenous nations over many centuries? a. sister sheep of the Navajo b. Grandmother Turtle of the Haudenosaunee c. Spider Woman o