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Mash Histo II Test1D

NWHSU Histology 2 Test 1 - Digestive System

QuestionAnswer
A. What are Peyer’s Patches? B. Where are they usually located? A. Groups of lymphoid tissue B. (Ileum of) small intestine
Consider the parietal cell of the stomach. How does its cytology relate to its function? Lots of mitochondria to secrete through gradient, lots of plasma membrane for active transport. Lots of ribosomes, rER, Golgi for production of intrinsic factor that is secreted.
What cells secrete proteolytic enzymes into the GI tract? Pancreatic acinar cells, chief cells
Blood in the liver sinusoid comes from A._______ and drains into the B.________. A. Hepatic a. B. Central v.
Give the specific targets of pancreozymin/cholecystokinin. Pancreozymin – acinar cells of pancreas and Cholecystokinin -smooth muscle of gallbladder
Chylomicrons are formed by the A. ________ cell and are carried away from the small intestine by B._________ A. Absorptive B. Lymphatic System (lacteals)
What cell synthesizes bile? Hepatocyte
What forms the smooth dome-shaped elevations of the dorsal 1/3 of the tongue? Lymphatic tissue
In cirrhosis of the liver, hepatocytes die but can be regenerated. Why does cirrhosis commonly progress to liver failure in spite of the new hepatocytes? The new cells cannot reform connections with the sinusoids, which results in portal hypertension.
What is the fundamental abnormality in Hirschsprung’s disease? Lack of ganglion cells in the rectum
In addition to enzymes, serous salivary glands also secrete________. IgA, lactoferrin
What general activities of the parietal cell are suggested by it's cytology? Lots of surface area and mitochondria for secretion; specifically against a concentration gradient.
Consider pancreozymin/cholecystokinin. This hormone is secreted by _____. A. Endocrine cells of small intestines
Consider pancreozymin/cholecystokinin. Give it's two major targets and the response of each target. B. Gallbladders smooth m. – secretes bile into duodenum AND Pancreatic acinar cells – secrete digestive enzymes into duodenum
The pancreatic duct secretes A. _____ in response to B. _______ A. Alkaline fluid B. Secretin
In cirrhosis of the liver, loss of the normal sinusoidal connections between the portal vein and the hepatic vein results in __________. Portal Hypertension
A. Describe the histology of the hepatic sinusoid. A. discontinuous endothelium and discontinuous B.L. and Kupffer cells (macrophages)
B. How does this structure (of the hapatic sinusoid) relate to its function? B. many large molecules need to move through the tissue and the macrophages are needed to protect against microorgansisms and waste products
secrete protein cleaving enzymes in the GI tract (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Chief, Acinar
secrete HCl (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Parietal
Synthesize chylomicron (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Absorptive
Secrete (NOT release) in response to pancreozynmin (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Pancreatic acinar cells
Enzymes of the glycocalyx perform the terminal digestion of proteins and carbohydrates (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Absorptive
Secrete alkaline products in response to secretin (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Duct cells of pancreas and gall bladder
Secrete gastrin (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Endocrine
Secrete intrinsic factor (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Parietal
Smooth muscle constricts in response to cholecystokinin (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Smooth Muscle
Synthesizes lysozyme (Name the cells described. Choose your answers from a provided list on test.) Paneth
Gallbladder smooth muscle constricts in response to A. _____ which is secreted by B. __________ A. Cholecystokinin (pancreozymine) B. Endocrine cells of small intestine
Which cells of the digestive system secrete: A. Most of the proteolytic enzymes B. Intrinsic factor C. Bile salts A. pancreatic acinar B. parietal cells C. hepatocytes
Crypts - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small and Large
Appendices Epiploicae - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Large
Submucosal Glands - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small
Goblet Cells - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small and Large
Plica Circulares - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small
Paneth Cells - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small
Absorptive Cells - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small and Large
Villi - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small
Lymphoid Cells - (Which of the following structures are present in the small intestine but absent in the large intestine?) Small and Large
Esophageal varices are a potentially lethal complication of cirrohosis. Why? Varices can occur in the lumen of the esophagus where they can be easily eroded by gastric acid resulting in hemorrhage. The bleeding is fatal
Which lingual papillae contain taste buds? Circumvallate, Fungiform
Which major salivary is primarily composed of serous acini? Parotid Gland
Give the targets of pancreozymin and their responses:In the pancreas, pancreozymin stimulates the A. _______ cells to B. _________. A. Pancreatic Acinar Cells B. Secrete digestive enzymes
Give the targets of pancreozymin and their responses:In the gall bladder, it stimulates the C. _______ to D. ______ C. smooth muscle to contract D. release of bile
Terminal digestion of most CHO and proteins is accomplished by ________. Enzymes secreted by the glycocalyx of absorptive cells in the small intestine
Neutralization of the acid ph in the distal ileum is accomplished by A. _____ (product) secreted by B. _______ cells. A. secretion of intestinal fluid (alkaline) B. Undifferentiated
Villi (Which of the following are characteristic of the: Small or Large Intestine) Small
Crypts (Which of the following are characteristic of the: Small or Large Intestine) Small and Large
Paneth Cells (Which of the following are characteristic of the: Small or Large Intestine) Small
Tenia Coli (Which of the following are characteristic of the: Small or Large Intestine) Large
What is the function of the lacteal? Lymphatic vessels that collect chylomicrons from absorbing cells in small intestine
Which lingual papillae contain taste buds? Fungiform, circumvillate
If the epith’m of the distal esophagus is chronically exposed to gastric secretions it may undergo metaplasia and develop into A. ________. B. Why is this a problem? A. Gastric Type Glandular Epithileum B. Predisposed to cancer and prone to ulceration and inflammation.
What structural changes occur in cirrhosis of the liver that cause portal hypertension? New cells cannot reform connections with sinusoids
What cytological characteristics of the gall bladder reflect its function of concentration of bile? Simple columnar with dense microvillus border and tight junctions
The ectodermal diverticulum called Rathke’s pouch gives rise to all components of the _________. Adenohypophysis
Destruction of hepatocytes and loss of their relationships with the sinusoids and with the biliary system characterizes what disease? Cirrohsis
Which of the following are generally characteristic of hepatocyte. A.Rich in glycogen B. Have abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum C. Form bile canaliculi with adjacent cells D. Synthesize and secrete most plasma proteins A.Rich in glycogen B. Have abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum C. Form bile canaliculi with adjacent cells D. Synthesize and secrete most plasma proteins
Created by: AnatomyMash
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