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20th century & rev.


Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
Burschenschaften Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.
Carbonari Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815.
Carlsbad Decrees (1819) Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities.
Decembrist Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early nineteenth century.
Frederick William IV (1840-1861) King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848.
Francois Guizot (1787-1874) Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repression led to the revolution of 1848.
Holy Alliance An alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles.
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873) Nephew of Napoleon I; he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848.
Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859) Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) British philosopher who published On Liberty (1859), advocating individual rights against government intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights.
Poor Law of 1834 Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid.
Quadruple Alliance Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818.
Rotten boroughs Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament.
Zollverein Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844.
Repeal of Test Act (1828) Allowed Protestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office.
Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829) Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time.
Reform Bill of 1832 Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs.
Slavery Abolished in the British Empire, 1833.
Factory Act Limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories
Corn Laws Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristicratic landholdings.
Created by: mgonz09
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