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ARHMFinal IDs + Cntx

<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Title Page from Nova Reperta</span><br />Johannes Stradanus<br />1600<br />Antwerp, Flanders<br /> - Printing press, things related to alchemy, ink (producing dyes/woods)<br /> * Michelangelo influenced figures<br>* Snake biting itself = regeneration<br>* The New world/Old world are represented <br />Availability of the female nude figure - other, nati
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Amerigo Vespucci Awakens a Sleeping America</span><br />Johannes Stradanus<br />1600<br />Antwerp, Flanders * Availability of the female nude figure - other, native of the Americas<br>* Based on Vespucci's <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Writings of the New World</span> from his travels<br>* Cannibalism represented in background
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Bolivar on Horseback</span><br />Arayo Gomez<br />1857<br />Chile * (no artist bio, find Bolivar bio)<br /><br>*Know their politics<br>- Bolivar resigns his job (doesn't get kicked out, murdered)
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Napoleon Crossing the Alps</span><br />David<br />1801<br />France * Know their politics...
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Portrait of Bolivar (pencil drawing)</span><br />Jose' Maria Espinosa<br />1828-9ish<br />Colombia * Studied with Pablo Antonio García<br />History painter and portraitist<br />His disciples include José Manuel Groot and Luis García Hevia<br />Went to war and recorded it in caricatures<br>* Drawn from life<br>*
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Bolivar: Portrait of the Liberator</span><br />Jose' Maria Espinosa<br />1864<br />Colombia * Portraits continue posthumously <br />Pose in drawing was used to create this painting<br /><br />Studied with Pablo Antonio García<br />History painter and portraitist<br />His disciples include José Manuel Groot and Luis García Hevia<br />Went to war
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Portrait of Simon Bolivar in Lima</span><br />Jose Gil Castro<br />1835<br />Peru * Known as “El Mulato Gil”<br />Expert in engineering and map making<br />Bolivar's favorite portrait<br>* - "The Liberator"<br>- Military regalia<br>- Congress of Angostura, summoned by Simón Bolívar, in Angostura during the wars of Independenc
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Portrait Liberator Augustin de Iturbide</span><br />Anonymous<br />1822<br />Mexico * 1821 Emperor<br />Designed Mexican flag<br />"Plan of Equality"<br>* - Elaborate background, Mexican, hated<br>- Tried to take Bolivar's title as "The Liberator"<br />- Shown as a gentleman<br>*
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Portrait of Policarpa Salavarrieta</span><br />Epifanio Garay Caicedo<br />19th century<br />Colombia? * Seamstress tried for treason/executed for being a spy; infiltrated as a maid<br>* Images created to raise nationalism<br>* Academic style vs. naive style (execution)
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Policarpa Salavarrieta Goes to Her Execution</span><br />Anonymous<br />19th Century<br />Colombia? * Seamstress tried for treason/executed for being a spy; infiltrated as a maid<br>* Images created to raise nationalism<br>* Academic style vs. naive style (execution)
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Riding to Bogotá with the Liberation Army</span><br />Francisco de Paulo Alvarez<br />19th century<br />Colombia * Last battle of freedom from Spain<br>* History painting w/ landscape in the background<br>* Battle of Boyacá
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Allegory of the Departure of Dom Pedro II for Europe after the Declaration of the Republic</span><br />Anonymous<br />1890<br />Brazil? - Flag of Brazil<br>- Personification of Brazil as a new Republic<br>- Contains constitution of the new Republic<br><br> - * Represents the Republic of Brazil, indepence of New World<br />From monarchy to republic<br>* Hierarchy of scale<br />Phrygian cap
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Virgin of the Hill with Charles V</span><br />Anonymous<br />1740<br />Peru?<br />Oil on canvas Charles V, Pachamama, indigenous population (Incas), trinity above<br> - * Syncretism - mixture of old/new religions<br /><br>* Pachamama + Virgin Mary = one new symbol<br>* Silver mines of modern day Bolivia - silver sphere<br />Pachamama = the Andean ea
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Simon Bolivar</span><br />A. Leclerc<br />1819<br />French? - Propaganda to teach people what he looked like, his intentions<br />- Wanted to unify LAA - New Colombia<br> - * Images of Bolivar, the Great Liberator<br>* To be replicated for the people
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Here is Your Liberator</span><br />Dubois<br />19th century<br />French? - Propaganda to teach people what he looked like, his intentions<br />- Wanted to unify LAA - New Colombia<br> - * Image of Simon Bolivar, the Great Liberator
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Simon Bolivar, Liberator and Father of the Nation</span><br />Pedro Jose Figueroa<br />1819<br />Colombia - Naive style<br />- Includes "caiman" alligator native to LAA * Female = allegorical representation of "Gran Colombia"<br>* Bolivar = father of nation - protector of Gran Colombia<br>* Figueroa = 10 portraits of Bolívar<br />Done quic
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">The Martyr Olaya</span><br />Jose Gil de Castro<br />1823<br />Peru * Spy, fisherman; accused of treason; local hero (took letters and swam - spy)<br />Becomes one of mots sig martyrs for race for independence (tortured)<br>* More colonial Spanish style - dandelero w/ inscription and cartoosh<br>* Made for nationality, pr
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Torture of Cuahte'moc</span><br />Leandro Izaguirre<br />1893<br />Mexico - Cuauhte'moc = Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan from 1520 to 1521 * Studied at San Carlos under Rebull, de Pina, and Velasco<br>* Inspired by David's Death of Socrates<br>* Photography = influence<br />Native subject, non-native architecture
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Friar Bartolome de las Casas</span><br />Felix Parra<br />1875<br />Mexico * Student/professor at San Carlos<br>* Dominican friar that advocated before Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) - native's rights<br>* Egyptian architecture - faux-indigenous<br /><br />16th century events, 19th century figure<br />Paternal image, Catholic ch
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Miranda in La Carraca</span><br />Arturo Michelena<br />1896<br />Venezuela * Painted posthumously; 100 year anniversary<br>* Forerunner of Simón Bolívar<br>* Venezualan revolutionary leader; died in prison a traitor<br><br />Realism (big R), loose brush work; academic
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">The Guitar Player</span><br />Jose Ferraz de Almeida Junior<br />1899<br />Brazil * Costumbrismo - customs, dress, culture<br>* Stabbed while painting at easel<br>* Student of LeCevrel, Meireles, Cabanel<br />Monumentalizing the peasant, loose brushwork, Realism
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">The Indian Potter</span><br />Francisco Laso<br />1855<br />Peru * Costumbrismo - customs, dress, culture<br>* Whitening of the peasant<br>* "Mochica” pottery (Inca)<br />Representation of people of Peru; not portrait
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Dusk</span><br />Juan Manuel Blanes<br />n.d.<br />Uruguay - Gaucho * Used Farnese Hercules as model<br>* Taught self to draw and worked as typographer<br>* Part of a series<br />-Titles = atmospheric/ambient aspects; not place/time<br />- Realism, monumentalizing of the peasant, monochromatic, subjugation of lan
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">The Huntress of the Andes</span><br />Felipe Santiago Gutie'rrez<br />1891<br />Mexico * Founder and director of the first Academy of Art in Colombia<br />Studied at San Carlos and Rome - Brings to Colombia his learned style<br />National identity in confines of European Academic art<br /><br>* - LAA academic style<br>- Blended into the lan
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">The Wave</span><br />William-Adolphe Bouguereau<br />1896<br />France * <br>* sexualized/muse<br>- European academic style
<img src="" /> "Chimborazo seen from the Tapia Plateau" From<span style="font-style:italic;">Voyage of Humboldt and Bonpland...</span><br />Alexander von Humboldt<br />1810<br />Germany * Venezuela - 1799 w/ botanist Aimé Bonpland<br />Went to Philadelphia and met Jefferson and Peale<br />30 volumes: <span style="font-style:italic;">Relation historique de voyage aux régions équinoxiales de nonveau continent</span><br>* - Travel, new plan
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">View in the Environs of Lima</span><br />Johan Moritz Rugendas<br />1843<br />Germany * Family of artists, trained with father<br />Barbizon school<br />Published Voyage pittoresque au Brésil (1827-35) in 100 lithographs<br />Became court painter to Maximilian II in Bavaria<br /><br />Attended Munich Academy and studied with Lorenz von Qua
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Valley of Mexico</span><br />Jose Maria Velasco<br />1875<br />Mexico * Attended San Carlos Academy, studied with Eugenio Landesio<br />Appointed professor of perspective in Academy in 1868 and 1875 Landscape professor<br />Publishes Flora de los Alrededores de Mexico<br /><br /><br>* - Birthplace of Aztec Empire<br>- Cactu
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">The Valley of Mexico</span><br />Eugenio Landesio<br />1855 c<br />Italy * Student/teacher connection<br />Brought the classical landscape formula to Mexico<br />Trained in Rome
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">View of the Valley of Mexico from the Hill of Santa Isabel</span><br />Jose Maria Velasco<br />1877<br />Mexico * Attended San Carlos Academy, studied with Eugenio Landesio<br />Appointed professor of perspective in Academy in 1868 and 1875 Landscape professor<br />Publishes Flora de los Alrededores de Mexico<br /><br />- His development - in beginning does use fig
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Eagle and Cactus</span><br />Anonymous<br />1834<br />Mexican??
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Codex Mendoza</span><br />Anonymous<br />1541-42 c<br />Aztec/Spanish<br />Manuscript
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">El Citlaltepetl</span><br />Jose Maria Velasco<br />1879<br />Mexico - Integration of industry into power of his landacpes<br>- Tries to perfect the Valley of Mexico, which epitomizes his culture * Paints as if looking through a telescope (not natural)<br>* Train in 1837 = major economic development in Mexico at time<br>*
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">View of the Valley of Mexico</span><br />Daniel Thomase Egerton<br />1837<br />England
<img src="" /> <span style="font-style:italic;">Gust of Wind at the Summit, Iztaccihuatl</span><br />Daniel Thomas Egerton<br />n.d.<br />England - Example of the sublime (awe + terror) in natural landscapes * Founding member of the Society of British Artists<br>* Sublime - awe + terror<br /><br>* Costumbrismo + topography<br />More mountain vs. sky (against traditional landscape format) - Loraine,
<img src="" /> Anonymous<br />"Calavera Unmasking the Truth"<br />El Calavera<br />1847 2 February<br />Mexico? - Drawing it out and eventually printing it<br>- Manilla = invented calaveras; Posada popularized them<br>- Satirical, later an honor<br>- Anonymous in beginning to avoid arrest * El Calavera was found in 1847 - Satirical, political, and literary periodic
<img src="" /> Anonymous<br />"Calavera Unmasking the Truth"<br />El Calavera<br />1847 26 March<br />Mexico? - Drawing it out and eventually printing it<br>- Manilla = invented calaveras; Posada popularized them<br>- Satirical, later an honor<br>- Anonymous in beginning to avoid arrest * Appeared on the cover of <span style="font-style:italic;">La Calavera, </sp
<img src="" /> José Guadalupe Posada<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla</span><br />c. 1899<br />Mexico - Priest responsible for the Mexican revolution * Creole priest born in Guanajuato who initiated the Mexican Revolution against Spain<br>* This image marked the 89th anniversary of the Mexican Revolution<br>* Took up the banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe,
<img src="" /> Diego Rivera<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Zapatista Landscape (The Guerilla)</span><br />1915<br />Mexico - Pointellism, sarape, riffle, hat, supposed to be Zapata * Based of a portrait of revolutionary figure Emiliano Zapata who wrote "Manifesto of the Mexicans"<br /><br>* Epitomy of his career and Mexican-ness (hat, gun, etc.), even though murals
<img src="" /> Detroit Institute of Arts Diego Rivera<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Detroit Industry South Wall </span>Fresco<br />1932<br />Mexico - Top = races, middle = elements, bottom = man/machine * Studied at San Carlos Academy under Parra, Velasco and Rebull<br>* Mixture of Aztec traditions and industrialization, with a robotic figure on the R that resembles Coatlicue<br>* "Coatlicue&quo
<img src="" /> Diego Rivera<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Flower Day</span><br />1925<br />Indigenismo - Indigenismo<br>- Hands influenced by Meso American sculpture<br>- Flowers sold in Holy Week (Easter)<br> * "Indigenismo" - fascinated with the Indian or Mestizo way of life, since 1921 in Yucatan<br />“the official attitude of praising and fos
<img src="" /> Diego Rivera<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Flower Seller with Lilies</span><br />1943<br />Indigenismo - Look like they're praying, religious conotation<br> -- Indigenismo<br>- Anonymous peasant<br>- Flowers sold in Holy Week (Easter)<br> * "Indigenismo" - focuses on the indigenous populations and culture of the Americas - costumbrismo aspects of
<img src="" /> José Sabogal<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">The Indian Mayor of Chincheros: Varayoc</span><br />1925<br />Peru - Avant-garde<br>- background = detailed<br>- Monumental peasant<br>- Costumbrismo<br>- Indigenismo (facial features) * Studied at the National School of Fine Arts in Buenos Aires<br>* 6 month stay in Cuzco prompted his indigenism, despite his Spanish des
<img src="" /> Franscisco Laso<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">The Indian Potter</span><br />1855<br />Peru - academic<br>- background = in studio<br>- Whitening of peasant, mochica pot<br>- Monumental peasant<br>- Costumbrismo * Costumbrismo - customs, dress, culture AND indigenismo - fosters the culture of the Native population<br /><br>* 1st academic artist
<img src="" /> Antonio Berni<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Juanito Laguna Goes to the City</span><br />1963<br />Argentina<br /> - Social painting commun issues of poverty<br />- Going to see his father to give him lunch<br> -Example of found objects - actual trash<br>- Also Ramona Montiel (prostitute) - made up characters * His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from
<img src="" /> Raquel Forner<br><span style="font-style:italic;">Drama</span><br>1942<br>Argentina * Global misery, apoc and events<br>Women victims during the war<br>Reps humanity in general when she presents herself<br>Sometimes Xn icon – female christ, martyr<br>Skeleton – 7 face demon – whore of babylon 7 headed beast<br>Destc of civil<br>Vaitas<br
<img src="" /> Juan O’Gorman<br />Self-Portrait<br />1950<br />Mexico<br /> * Works are said to be auto-biographical w/o being too personal<br /> Doesn’t necessarily fulfill aspects of surrealism (pure)<br />-Not dreamlike, but is strange/out of place<br /> Deals w/ aspect of private/public persona, how we view him<
<img src="" /> Julio Castellanos<br><span style="font-style:italic;">The Angel Kidnappers</span><br>1943<br>Mexico * Classify as surrealism<br> Folk legends vs. other worldly experiences or psychic phenom<br> Myth where angels steal babies from cribs at night while parents are sleeping – infant death syndrome<br> Used to explain the high i
<img src="" /> Antonio Ruiz<br><span style="font-style:italic;">The Dream of Malinche</span><br>1939<br>Mexico<br> * Surrealism in LAA = thought provoking<br> Combining reality w/ allegory/mythology<br>Dealt w/ diff types of subjects<br> Paintings done in small scale<br> Appear naive to us (seems to be presenting it from untrained pov; but was wel
<img src="" /> Frida Kahlo<br><span style="font-style:italic;">The Two Fridas</span><br>1939<br>Mexico * What makes it surreal is having double portraits of her<br>In response to her divorce from Rivera (remarries him the following year)<br>L Frida in techuana dress (spelling).... And R......<br>END CLASS<br>R is the tijuana version of herself who Diego lo
<img src="" /> Frida Kahlo<br><span style="font-style:italic;">My Birth</span><br>1932<br>Mexico * Participated 1940 national surrealism exhibition in Mexico City<br>Breton - surrealist but she didn’t know it (developed independently from them)<br>Both of these works are presented as miraculous interventions<br>L – panel at bottom where you would hav
<img src="" /> Frida Kahlo<br><span style="font-style:italic;">The Suicide of Dorothy Hale</span><br>1939<br>Mexico * Participated 1940 national surrealism exhibition in Mexico City<br>Breton - surrealist but she didn’t know it (developed independently from them)<br>Both of these works are presented as miraculous interventions<br>L – panel at bottom where you would hav
<img src="" /> Remedios Varo<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Exploration of the Source of the Orinoco RIver</span><br />1959<br />Spain * Different kind of surrealism from those exiled (or is exiled - Does a lot with female occupations<br />Self port/referential?<br />Remin of the fountain of life Xn iconography<br /> altar<br /><br />- Golden/silvery tones, assoc with Bosch<br />-
<img src="" /> Leonora Carrington<br />Self-Portrait<br />1937<br />Britiain * - Both work in Mexico, exiled artist<br /> working in surrealism that is from Europe<br />- Both self referential<br /> R – multiple self portraits<br />- Both reference escape<br />- Iconography - based on shrot stories we ID hyena that w
<img src="" /> Pedro Figari<br><span style="font-style:italic;">Candombe</span><br>1920s<br>Uruguay * Subject matter - ...<br>Thick applic of paint, aspects of fracture in his works<br>Infl by impress but also Bonard in his use of color<br>Subject matter - makes up scenes of Condombe (other scenes terteuis? = gathering in LAA wher eyou have convos and d
<img src="" /> Armando Reverón<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Cinco Figuras</span><br />1939<br />Venezuala * Dolls<br> Exaggerated sexual features- point of being grotesque<br>Cardboard, paper, wires, thread, skeletons etc.<br>Basic study of the female nude<br>* Dolls – not real people<br />Lives in a hut in the middle of nowhere and his woman<br />
<img src="" /> Tarsila do Amaral<br><span style="font-style:italic;">Abaporu</span><br>1928<br>Brazil * - 1st painting of the period<br>- Abapuru<br>- Makes it for ___'s birthday<br>- Stylized; connection with the earth (large feet)<br> - Abapuru = "man eats"<br>- ___re wrote a manifesto; when paints figure it is class as Anthropophagite
<img src="" /> Joaqui'n Torres-Garcia<br>Composicion Universal<br>1933<br>Uruguay * Luis Fernandes – assoc w/, also intersted in Masonic?<br>Divided further (grids), colors aren’t as bold/bright – gray/white/red/yellow mixed into each other<br> becomes int in using milk cans, architectural elements from antiquity, and “hierarchy
<img src="" /> Alejandro Otero<br><span style="font-style:italic;">Delta Solar Statue</span> - Air and Space Museum, D.C.<br>1977<br>Venezuela<br> * Donated by gov of Venez to US<br> gift to celebrate the bicentennial of US independence<br>Typical of his style – architectural sculpture (sculpture in a large scale)<br> works with cubes<br>Pyramid – ideas, the sun, Inca sun, connects to
<img src="" /> Jesu's Rafael Soto<br /><span style="font-style:italic;">Pene'trable BBL Bleu</span><br />1969 refabricated 1999<br />Venezuela * Nylon – sense of it enveloping you, engulfing you, changing your perception of the visual/tactile<br />Entered by spectators<br />Talks of it about a “forest” you would walk into of elements/matierals<br />Wanted them to evoke a “gentle tropical rain”<b
<img src="" /><img src="" /> He'lio Oiticica<br><span style="font-style:italic;">Tropica'lia</span><br>1967<br>Brazil * Shanty town<br>alienation<br>Theories that go against Frued<br>Cartesan - Marlot Ponty the role of the body in perception Polysensoral experience<br>Starts Tropicalism/Tropicalia movement<br>* Invents penetrable<br>NeoConcrete<br>Doesn’t exist
<img src="" /> Carlos Cruz Diez<br>Chromointerference Oval A1<br>2008<br>Venezuela Seurat – cones/rods and how they work (early on)<br>Post-Impressionist thought<br>Perception, movement, and emotional qualities of color<br>* Op-Art and kinetic<br>Focus on connection between color and emotion*<br>*
<img src="" /> Fernando Botero Angulo <br><span style="font-style:italic;">After Velazquez</span><br>1978??? 1988???<br>Colombia * Appropriates previous works<br> dialogue with art<br>* They’re just figures<br>“most colombian of colombian painters”<br>People interpret them as satirical – is it his intention?<br> Very! Popular<br>Art critics respond negatively – Greenburg :(
<img src="" /> Claudio Bravo<br><span style="font-style:italic;">Vanitas</span><br>1981<br>Chile * Dialogue with the past<br>Cota’n – vegetables<br>Zurbara’n<br>This is actually the clothes that they wear in morrocco<br>habits = djellaval? <br>Realistic<br>* Spansih, baroque, Zurbaran = influences<br>Lives in Tangiers/Morrocco
<img src="" /> Pepo'n Osorio<br><span style="font-style:italic;">En la Barberia no se Llora</span><br>1994<br>Puerto Rico * 1994<br>real building<br>1st experience of getting a haircut<br> <br>Machismo, cultural identity of the Puerto Rican population<br>Adopts thes chachcees/chucherria<br>Does this to “heal the community”<br>“Chucherias”*<br>Sper,
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