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medieval days

vocab

QuestionAnswer
Middle Ages the period of European history between the collapse of Rome and the Renaissance
Charlemagne a king of the Franks who conquered most of Europe and spread Christianity
Monastry a place where members of a religious order practice a life of prayer and worship
Feudalism the political and social system of the Middle Ages in Europe, in which lords gave land to vassals in exchange for service and loyalty
Lord a powerful landholding noble
Serf a peasant farmer in feudal society, who labored for a noble in exchange for protection and certain rights
Manor the estate of a feudal noble, usually including a fortified building or castle
Knight a highly trained mounted warrior in the service of a noble during the European Middle Ages
Chivalry the code of conduct of medieval European knight, focusing on bravery, honor, and respect toward women and the weak
Guild an association of people sharing a trade or craft intended to control the quality and quantity of their production and to protect their interests.
Bushido the code of conduct of samurai warriors, which required that they be generous, brave, and loyal
Epic poem a long poem that tells a story of heroic adventures
Clergy the people with priestly authority in a religion
Pope Gregory Vll the head of the Roman Catholic Church from 1073- 1085, who struggled with Emperor Henry lV.
Emperor Henry lV an 11th century ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, who continually struggled for power with Pope Gregory Vll
Religious order a group of people who rules in place of an absent or underage monarch
Francis of Assisi an Italian who founded the Franciscan religious order in the early A.D. 1200s
Thomas Aquinas an Italian scholar who made a synthesis of classical philosophy and Christian theology
Seljuk Turk - a member of a Turkish people that controlled central and western Asia from the 11th – 13th century.
Crusade - a series of military expeditions from Christian Europe to Palestine between the 11th and 13th centuries
Saladina a military leader who united Muslims to fight the Christians in Palestine during the 12th century`
Reconquista the series of campaigns, ending in A.D. 1492, by which Christian armies drove Muslim rulers out of Spain.
Inquisition court established by the Roman Catholic Church in A.D 1542 to investigate people who may have strayed from the Roman Catholic faith and to strengthen the power of the Church.
Bubonic plague a disease that struck western Eurasia in the mid 1300s, in an outbreak known as the Black Death
Hundred Years’ War - a series of wars between England and France, from A.D 1337-1453
Joan of Arc a French peasant girl who led the French to victory over the English at Orleans in A.D. 1429
Longbow a weapon that can shoot arrows able to penetrate a knight’s armor
King John the king of England who signed the Magna Carta in A.D 1215
Magna Carta - a list of rights written by england’s nobility and signed by King John in A.D 1215
Parliament a group of representatives with some powers of government
Habeas corpus the right of people not to be imprisoned unlawfully
Osman the Turkish leader who founded the Ottoman Empire in the early A.D. 1300s
Divan an imperial council that advised the sultan in the Ottoman Empire
Suleyman l the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from A.D 1520- 1566, who encouraged the arts and organized a legal code
Janissary a member of an elite fighting force of the Ottoman Empire, made up of many slaves
Silk Roads ancient trade routes that connected Europe with China
Humanism - a movement in Renaissance Europe, celebrating human potential and achievement and stressing the study of subject such as history, grammar, literature, and philosophy
Renaissance a period of rebirth and creativity in art, writing, and thought from about A.D. 1300-1600, beginning in Italy and eventually spreading throughout Europe
Patron a person who supports an activity or institution by providing financial backing
Perspective a technique of painting, developed during the Renaissance, that represents the appearance of objects in 3-dimensional space
Leonardo da Vinci - an Italian Renaissance painter, born in A.D. 1452
Michelangelo an Italian Renaissance artist, born in A.D. 1475 who worked mainly as a sculpture.
William Shakespeare most famous English writer of the Renaissance, best known for his plays.
Elizabethan Age the period of the rule of Queen Elizabeth l in England, from 1558-1603
Johann Gutenberg a German who, in the mid-1400s, invented a press for printing with movable type
Printing press a machine for pressing paper against inked movable type
Vernacular a person’s native language
Great Schism a division in the Roman Catholic Church from A.D 1378 until 1417, which is when the Church’s 2centers of power, split and elected different popes
Indulgence - a pardon for sin granted by the Roman Catholic Church, allowing a person to avoid punishment by God in the afterlife
Martin Luther a German theologian, born in A.D 1483, who was a leader of the Reformation and taught salvation through faith in God rather than through good deed.
Protestant a member of a Christian group that broke with the Roman Catholic Church during or after the 16th century
Reformation a movement of opposition to the Roman Catholic Church, beginning in the 16th century.
John Calvin a leader of the Protestant Reformation, who lived from A.D 1509-1564 and emphasized the doctrine of predestination
Predestination the doctrine that God chooses people for salvation and damnation before they are born and that individuals have no power to change God’s will
St. Ignatius of Loyola a Spaniard who founded the religious order of Jesuits in the earl A.D 1530s
Jesuit a member of the Society of Jesus, a religious order founded in the early A.D 1530s by St. Ignatius of Loyola
Inquisition a court established by the Roman Catholic Church in A.D 1542 to investigate people who may have strayed from the Roman Catholic faith and to strengthen the power of the Church
Missionary a person who travels to a foreign country in order to do religious work
Convert to persuade a person to adopt a new religion or belief
Peace of Westphalia an agreement reached in A.D 1648, which recognized the permanent division of western Europe into Catholic and Protestant nations and ended many ongoing religious wars.
Covenant a binding agreement
Federalism the sharing of power between an organization or government and its members
Created by: moncheechee19