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Government - E3 - P1

Government - Exam 3 - Part 1 - Chapter 8 - Campaigns

QuestionAnswer
Perception of popular support for a program or policy based on the margin of electoral victory won by a candidate who proposed it during a campaign Mandate
Voting for or against a candidate or party on the basis of past performance in office Retrospective voting
In politics, a reference to the increasing number of officeholders for who politics is a full-time occupation Professionalism
In politics, a reference to people who started young working in politics, running for and holding public office, and who made politics their career Careerism
Candidates currently in office seeking reelection Incumbents
Percentages of incumbents running for reelection who are successful Reelection rates
Public awareness of a political candidate – whether they are familiar with his or her name Name Recognition
In politics, a reference to people running against incumbent officeholders Challengers
Free use of the US mails granted to members of Congress to promote communication with constituents Franking Privilege
Plan for a political campaign, usually including a theme, an attempt to define the opponent or the issues, and an effort to coordinate images and messages in news broadcasts and paid advertising Campaign Strategy
Speeches, commercials, or advertising attacking a political opponent during a campaign Negative Campaigning
In a political context, a small number of people brought together in a comfortable setting to discuss and respond to themes and issues, allowing campaign managers to develop and analyze strategies Focus group
Staged opportunities for the media to photograph the candidate in a favorable setting Photo ops
Concise and catchy phrases that attract media coverage Sound bites
In politics, to activate supporters to work for candidates and turn out on Election Day Mobilize
Ads that advocate policy positions rather than explicitly supporting or opposing particular candidates Issue Ads
Organizations that solicit and receive campaign contributions from corporations, unions, trade associations, and ideological and issue-oriented groups, and their members, then distribute these funds to a political candidate Political Action Committees (PACs)
Agency charged with enforcing federal election laws and disbursing public presidential campaign funds Federal Election Commission (FEC)
Previously unregulated contributions to the parties, now prohibited; contributions to parties are now limited Soft Money
Direct candidate contact with individual voters Retail Politics
Practitioners of the art of spin control, or manipulations of media reporting to favor their own candidate Spin Doctors
Presidential political campaign strategy in which a candidate focuses on winning early primaries to build momentum Front-end strategy
The scheduling of presidential primary elections early in the year Front Loading
Presidential political campaign strategy in which a candidate focuses on winning primaries in large states because of their high delegate counts Big State strategy
The 538 presidential electors apportioned among the state according to their congressional representation (plus three for the District of Columbia) whose votes officially elect the president and vice president of the United States Electoral College
States that are not considered to be firmly in the Democratic or Republican column Swing States
______ gives an advantage to known officeholders. Name recognition
The franking privilege allows incumbents in Washington to ______. send mail free of charge
Political consultant rules include: Go ______ early, often and right through Election Day, if necessary. negative
Political consultant rules include: Appeal to the ______, rather than to the head. heart and gut
Political consultant rules include: If ______, hit back even harder. attacked
Political consultant rules include: ______ early, if you have the money. Advertise
______ are small groups that are used by campaigns to test responses to issues focus groups
The main goal of campaigns is to ______ mobilize supporters
The maximum individual contribution to a presidential candidate for each of the primary and general elections is about ___. $2300
As a candidate, Barack Obama reportedly raised ______ from donors over the internet for his 2008 presidential election. $500 million
The franking privilege may feed into name recognition by allowing incumbents to keep in contact with ______ constituents
______ of the candidate is more credible in the eyes of viewers regarding candidates News coverage
Presidential campaigns can use public money from what source? Tax check-offs
A media mention contributes most directly to ______ name recognition
Which state traditionally holds the first presidential primary? New Hampshire
_______ is NOT usually a requirement for a big-state strategy? Party endorsement
In most states, to win all of a state’s electoral votes, candidates must get what proportion of a state’s popular vote? A plurality
______ were the first presidential hopefuls to debate on television Kennedy and Nixon
When does the Electoral College meet in election years? December
To win the presidential election you must have what proportion of Electoral College votes? A majority
What are 4 swing states? Ohio, Pennsylvania, Missouri, New Mexico
More than any other campaign event, television viewers watch ______. debates
The term 'retail politics' refers to candidates ______. in direct contact with voters
The most overrepresented profession in politics is _______. attorneys
In a large state it could easily cost in excess of _____ to run a winning campaign for the US Senate. $25 million
Probably the most important hurdle to any candidate for office is ______. fund-raising
Created by: K1N1V