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NWHSUAnatomy I Final

Anatomy Final Review

QuestionAnswer
Where do the lower extremity nerves arise from? Lumbar and Sacral plexus
What are the spinal cord segments for Femoral nerve? L2-4
Where does the Femoral nerve end? at the thigh where it branches off to it's Distribution Branches (muscular, cutaneous, and articular branches
What are the spinal cord segments for Obturator nerve? L2-4
Where does the Obturator nerve end? mid thigh where it divides into Anterior and Posterior Branches
What are the cord segments for Sciatic nerve? L4-S3 (L4-5 and S1-3)
What is the largest nerve of the body? Sciatic n.
Sciatic nerve is composed of what two divisions? Tibial and Common Fibular N.
Where does this division take place? gluteal to mid-thigh area
Where does the Sciatic nerve end? at the Division for Tibial and Common Fibular
Injury to the Sciatic nerve results in what? Penetrating Posterior thigh wounds may easily injuure the sciatic n. since the nerve travels posterior to the acetabulum it is vulnerable to injury from posterior lip fracture of the acetabulum
What are the cord segments for the Tibial Nerve? L4-S3
What is the largest branch of the Sciatic Nerve? Tibial Nerve
What are the cord segments for common fibular nerve? L4-S2
Where does the common fibular nerve end? WITHIN the fibularis longus when it divides into Deep and Superficial fibular n.
Injury to Common Fibular Nerve vulnerable as it passes around the neck of the fibula. Signs of injury are involuntary inversion of foot and foot drop, skin anesthesia of lateral and anterior leg and dorsum of foot
Where do the nerves of the upper limb derive from? Brachial plexus
What are the cord segments for Axillary (circumflex) nerves? C5,6
Injury to Axillary nerve dislocation of humeral head or fractures of the surgical neck can injure the axillary n. signs are loss of sensation to skin over deltoid, muscle atrophy and weakness of shoulder abduction
What are the cord segments for the Radial nerve? C5-8 and T1
What is the largest branch of posterior cord? Radial n.
Where does the Radial Nerve end? Brachialis and Brachioradialis by dividing into Deep and Superficial Branch of Radial n.
What are the cord segments for Musculocutaneous Nerve? C5-7
Where does the Musculocutaneous nerve end? lateral forearm
What are the cord segments for Ulnar Nerve? C7-8 and T1
Where does the Ulnar Nerve end? dividing into its terminal branches of the hand: the superficial and deep branches of the ulnar nerve
What are the cord segments for Median Nerve? C5-8, T1
The Median Nerve supplies what? Most flexors in the forearm, certain intrinsic hand and radial 3 1/2 digits.
Injury to Median Nerve lacerations to the wrist cause paralysis of most Thenar Muscles -excluding adductor pollicis and the lateral two lumbricals.
Femoral Nerve, what are cord segments? L2-4
Obturator Nerve, what are cord segments? L2-4
Sciatic Nerve, what are cord segments? L4-S3
Tibial Nerve, what are cord segments? L4-S3
Common Fibular Nerve, what are cord segments? L4-S2
Axillary Nerve, what are cord segments? C5-6
Musculocutaneous Nerve, what are cord segments? C5-7
Radial Nerve, what are cord segments? C5-8, T1
Median Nerve, what are cord segments? C5-8, T1
Ulnar Nerve, what are cord segments? C7-8, T1
What are the five arteries of the lower limb? 1. Femoral a. 2. Popliteal a. 3. Posterior Tibial a. 4. Anterior Tibial a. 5. Dorsalis Pedis a.
How many branches does Femoral artery have? Which is biggest branch? 7 branches, Profunda is biggest
Which branch of the Femoral artery also branches off? Profunda Femoris
How many branches does the Profunda Femoris have? 3
What are the name of the Profunda Femoris Branches? Medial Femoral Circumflex, Lateral Femoral Circumflex, and Perforating aa.
Where is the Popliteal Artery located? in the Popliteal Fossa
Which artery is the continuation of the Femoral Artery? Popliteal a.
Where does the popliteal artery start and end? begins at Adductor Hiatus and ends at Inferior Border of Popliteus where it bifucates into anterior and posterior aa.
Which branch of Popliteal Artery is by the knee joint, ligaments, and Popliteous? Genicular aa.
How many branches does Genicular aa have? 5
What are the Genicular aa branches called? Superior Medial, INferior Medial, Middle, Superior Lateral, Inferior Lateral Genicular
What's good about these branches? They form anastomoses around the knee joint
Which artery does Posterior Tibial Artery start and end? begins at bifurcation of popliteal artery and passes downward along the posterior leg (runs with the tibial n.) and divides medial and lateral plantar aa.
What are the 3 main branches of Posterior Tibial Artery? Fibular a., Medial Plantar a., Lateral Plantar a.
What is the major branch of Posterior Tibial Artery? Fibular a.
Where do the main branches of Posterior Tibial go? Fibular artery goes to posterior and lateral compartment mm, Medial plantar artery goes to the medial side of foot and 1st toe, and Lateral plantar artery goes to bottom of foot and forms Plantar arch ---> plantar metatarsal aa ---> plantar digital aa.
Where does Anterior Tibial Artery begin and end? branches off of popliteal a. and immediately penetrates interosseous membrane then runs through anterior compartment of leg and ends by branching off to Anterior Medial Malleoular and Anterior Lateral Malleoular
Where does Dorsalis Pedis Artery begin and end? begins as the continuation of Anterior Tibial, passes from the anterior of foot to end at 1st intermetatarsal where it branches off to Arcuate Artery, 1st Dorsal Metatarsal Artery and Deep Plantar Branch.
Where do the superficial and deep veins locate? Superficial veins lie in superficial fascia, just under the skin. Deep veins accompany the arteries.
How many superficial veins are there? What are they called? 2 Great Saphenous vein and Small Saphenous vein
Which one is the longest one in the medial aspect of lower limb? Where does the Great Saphenous vein end? Where does the Small Saphenous vein end? Great Saphenous vein Ends by passing through saphenous hiatus Ends as a tributary to poplitel vein
Do the Great and Small Saphenous veins accompany the arteries and travel in pairs (venae comitantes)? No, because they are superficial veins and superficial veins don't accompany arteries and they don't travel in pairs.
How many lower limb deep veins (PAIRS) are ther? What are they called? There are 5 deep lower limb veins 1. Femoral & Profunda femoris vein 2. Popliteal vein 3. Anterior Tibial vein 4. Posterior Tibial and Fibular vein 5. Plantar Digital vein ***named similar to lower limb arteries because deep veins accompany arteri
What are the 5 main arteries in the upper limb? 1. Subclavian artery 2. Axillary artery 3. Brachial artery 4. Radial artery 5. Ulnar artery
What is the start and end for the Subclavian artery? Starts from the brachiocephalic trunk Ends at the anterior scalene
How many parts are there for the Subclavian artery? Where are they located? (Part 1 - 3) 3 parts total Part 1 is at the medial border of the anterior scalene; Part 2 is the posterior to the anterior scalene muscle; Part 3 is by the lateral border of anterior scalene to the lateral border of 1st rib.
What branches are in part 1 of Subclavian artery? Vetebral artery, internal thoracic artery, and thyrocervical trunk.
Where does the vetebral artery go to and end at? Ascends through transverse foramina of C1-C6 and enters skull via faramen magnum, where it ends by forming the basilar artery.
What are the branches of the vetebral artery? Cervical branches (spinal and muscular branches) & Cranial branches (meningeal, posterior and anterior spinal aa., posterior inferior cerebellar aa., and medullary aa.).
What are the branches for basilar artery? Anterior inferior cerebellar, labrynthine, pontine, superior cerebellar, and posterior cerebral.
What are the 4 main branches of the internal thoracic artery? Periocardiacophrenic, anterior intercostal aa., musculophrenic aa., and superior epigastric aa.. [P.A.M.S.]
Where does the internal thoracic artery end? Ends by branching off to musculophrenic and superior epigastric aa..
What are the branches for the thyrocervical trunk? Inferior thyroid aa., suprascapular aa., and transverse cervical aa.. [I.T.S.]
Where is Part 2 of the subclavian artery? Posterior to anterior scalene muscle
What is the branch for part 2 of the subclavian artery? Where is it located (Costocervical Trunk)? Costocervical trunk (can't see from A to P view) Arises from dorsal and cranial surface of subclavian
What branch is for part 3 of the subclavian artery? Dorsal Scapular artery (it is a branch off of transverse cervical)
What artery is the continuation of the subclavian artery? Axillary artery
Where do the Axillary artery start and end? Starts at the lateral border of 1st rib after anterior scalene muscle Ends at inferior margin of teres major muscle where it becomes the brachial artery
How many parts are there for the Axillary artery? 3 parts total [HT, TA-L.T., and S.A.P.]
What's in part 1 of the Axillary artery? (one branch) Highest Thoracic artery
What's in part 2 of the Axillary artery? (two branches) Thoracoacromial artery (has 4 branches - pectoral, acromial, clavicular, and deltoid) & Lateral thoracic artery
What's in part 3 of the Axillary artery? (three branches) Subscapular artery (scapular circumflex and thoracodorsal artery), Posterior Humeral Circumflex, and Anterior Humeral Circumflex arteries. [S.A.P.]
What artery is the continuation of the Axillary artery? Brachial artery
Where does the Brachial artery start and end? Starts from inferior margin of teres major Ends right after it passes the elbow
What is the largest branch of the brachial artery? Deep Brachial (Profunda Brachii) artery
Where does the Radial artery start and end? Starts at brachial bifurcation Ends at the hand
What are the main forearm branches of the Radial artery? Muscular Branches (muscles on the radial side of the forearm) Superficial Palmer branch (forms anastomosis with the terminal portion of ulnar artery)
What is the main wrist branch of the Radial artery? Dorsal Carpal Branch (forms anastomosis with dorsal carpal branch of ulnar and anterior interosseous artery)
What are the main hand branches of the radial artery? Princeps Pollicis (anterior thumb) & Deep Palmer Arch (the terminal part of the radial artery)
Which division of the brachial artery is the largest of the two? Ulnar artery
What is the forearm branch for the ulnar artery? Common Interosseous artery (gives off 2 branches): Anterior interosseous artery & Posterior interosseous artery
What is the wrist branch of the ulnar artery? Dorsal Carpal Branch
What are the hand branches of the ulnar artery? Deep Palmer Branch (anastomosis with deep palmar arch of radial artery) & Superficial Palmer Arch (the termination of the ulnar artery and branch off to the common palmar digital artery)
What are the superficial veins in the upper limb? 1. Cephalic vein 2. Basilic vein 3. Median Antebrachial vein 4. Dorsal Digital veins 5. Palmar Digital veins
What are the deep veins in the upper limb? 1. Deep Veins of the Hand 2. Deep Veins of the Forearm 3. Brachial Veins 4. Axillary Vein 5. Subclavian Vein
What is the definition for Anterior Primary Division? (Ventral rami), most spinal nerves use a regrouping device termed "plexus"
What is the definition for the Posterior Primary Division? (Dorsal rami), of spinal nerves use separate pathways
What are the spinal nerves for Cervical Plexus? C1-C4
What are the spinal nerves for Brachial Plexus? C5-T1
What are the spinal nerves for the Lumbar Plexus? L1-L4
What are the spinal nerves for the Sacral Plexus? L4-S3
What are the spinal nerves for the Coccygeal Plexus? S4
What are the 3 groups of the Cervical Plexus? 1. Cutaneous Branches 2. Cervical Plexus 3. Muscular Branches [CB, CP, MB]
What are the 4 nerves of the Cutaneous Branches and their spinal cord segments? 1. Lesser Occipital nerve (C2) 2. Great Auricular nerve (C2,3) 3. Transverse Cervical nerve (C2, C3) 4. Supraclavicular nerves (C3, C4)
What are the 4 nerves of the Cervical Plexus and their spinal cord segments? 1. Vagus nerve (C1,2) 2. Hypoglossal nerve (C1,2) 3. Accessory nerve (C2, C3, C4) 4. Sympathetic Trunk (C1, C2, C3, C4)
What is the main nerve for the Muscular Branches? Respiratory diaphragm via the PHRENIC NERVE (C3,4,5)
Spinal cord segments for the Suboccipital nerve? C1
Spinal cord segments for the Greater Occipital nerve? Mostly C2 & some C3
Spinal cord segments for the 3rd occipital nerve? C3
Brachial Plexus is divided into what 5 parts? Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, and Branches (Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer)
Roots: Dorsal Scapular nerve / Long Thoracic nerve C5 / C5,6,7
Trunks: Nerve to Subclavius / Suprascapular nerve C5,6 / C5,6
Thoracic Region: Intercostalbrachial nerve T2
INJURY to Radial Nerve Pressure exerted by a crutch (crutch palsy) or drunk person passes out over the back of a chair (Saturday night palsy). It can also be injured by fracture of the humeral shaft and its deep branch by a dislocation or fracture to the head of the radius.
Iliohypogastric Nerve (of the lumbar plexus), what are cord segments? L1
Ilioinguinal Nerve (of the lumbar plexus), what are cord segments? L1
Obturator Nerve (of the lumbar plexus), what are cord segments? L2-4
Femoral Nerve (of the lumbar plexus), what are cord segments? L2-4
Tibial Nerve (of the sacral plexus), what are cord segments? L4-S3
Common Fibular Nerve (of the sacral plexus), what are cord segments? L4-S2
Sciatic Nerve (of the sacral plexus), what are cord segments? L4-S3
What are the "triangle muscles"? Bulbospongiosus, Ischiocavernosus, Superficial Transverse Perineal
What innervates the "triangle muscles"? Pudendal n.
What are the Pelvic Floor Muscles? Levator Ani and Coccygeus
What are the Pelvic Wall Muscles? lateral wall - obturator externus; posterolateral wall - piriformis
Perineal body is... mass of fibrous tissue midway between the two ischial tuberosities; site of convergence of several pelvic floor muscles
What muscles form the Levator ani muscle? Pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, puborectalis (puborectalis forms sling around the anus to maintain continence)
What muscle/s assist in erection of clitoris/penis? Bulbospongiosus and Ischiocavernosus
Created by: AnatomyMash