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PD and dance

Study for thesis

QuestionAnswer
Name 3 reasons for hospitalization for individuals in the later stages of PD. falls, cardiovascular disease, infectionsWhat
What causes the significant neurological decline for individuals with PD? loss of dopamine producing cells of the substantia nigra within the basal ganglia
What percentage substantia nigra neurons are lost by the time a person is diagnosed with PD? 70-80%
What are the primary symptoms of PD? resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability
What are the secondary symptoms of PD? freezing, micrographia, mask-like expression, and unwanted accelerations of either speech or movement
What may be affected in later stages of PD? mental behavior and mood
What ADL's are affected by both impaired movement and postural instability? walking and transfers--often present serious barriers to occupational performance
Difficulty taking an initial step to begin walking is also known as ______________. start hesitation
Describe how manual dexterity decline may affect occupational performance. fastening buttons, applying make-up, eating, and writing
Describe how cognitive changes in PD may affect occupational performance. problem-solving abilities, attention, lead to stress, confusion, and apathy
What is the best approach for treatment for individuals with PD? a multi-disciplinary, client-centered approach
What are the most common treatment methods for PD? medication, surgery, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and exercise regimens
What are the unwanted side effects of medication for PD? nausea, hypotension, dyskinesias
How can OT help individuals with PD? coping skills, improving performance in ADLs
How can PT help individuals with PD? improved ambulation, bed mobility, and overall musculoskeletal weakness
How is exercise helpful for individuals with PD? increased walking speed, strength, endurance, and functional mobility
What are the traditional forms of exercise for individuals with PD? endurance training, balance training, strength training, and dynamic home exercise programs
What are some of the benefits of dance for individuals with PD? fulfills need for a creative outlet, increases endurance, improves gait and balance, strengthens social relationships, improve mood and QoL
Who developed Dance for PD®? Mark Morris Dance Group and the Brooklyn Parkinson Group
What do dance steps from partnered dance promote? start and end, turning, navigating movement near a partner
What is the basic step for tango? walking
What is bradykinesia? slowed ability to start and continue movements, and impaired ability to adjust the body's positions; can be a symptom of neurological disorders, or a side effect of medication
What is freezing? People with PD may experience episodes where movement ceases--can be dangerous and contribute to falls
bodily movement that requires both cognitive and physical processes motor function
sustained high muscle tone and stiffness that may be asymmetrical rigidity
How many people are affected by PD in the US? 500,000
How many new cases of PD are reported in the US each year? 50,000
What group has the highest incidence of PD? non-Hispanic white males
What symptoms create the psychosocial problems and stigmas experienced by individuals PD? reduced facial expression, slow speech, and embarrassment and frustration of being perceived as slow
What sorts of problems are caused by social withdrawal? decreased self-esteem, osteoporosis, and muscle weakness
What are the functions of the basal ganglia? learned and semi-automatic motor patterns such as walking, riding a bike, or writing
Where is the substantia nigra located? in the basal ganglia
What does the sustantia nigra produce? most of the neurotransmitter dopamine for the brain
What is the role of dopamine? acts like fuel energizing the basal ganglia, contributes to cognitive processes like attention, motivation, mood, and ability to make decisions
Describe how basil ganglia dysfunction, or loss of dopamine affects patients with PD. decline in ability to unconsciously plan, sequence, and carry out learned movement and motor skills; also affects the capacity to learn new concepts
Why is movement and motor control affected in older adults? secondary to muscular weakness and decreased force, or the ability to steadily apply force over time
How might older adults define health? the ability to engage in and perform everyday tasks
How are gait patterns affected in person's with PD? decreased step-length and velocity
What is the most common medication for symptoms of PD and what are its side effects? Levodopa (converts to dopamine in the brain)--gastrointestinal upset, hypotension, and nausea
Describe the "on" phase of the "on/off" effect. feeling well and able to move
Describe the "off" phase of the "on/off" effect sudden loss of mobility--like turning off a switch
What are some of the obstacles for pharmacological treatment? complicated dosage, critical timing, cognitive impairments, and so-morbid conditions such as depression
What is one of the primary aims of OT for PD? help individuals with PD cope with the effects of symptoms in order to regain independence
Name examples of internal cuing techniques often used in OT for PD. positive attitudes, mental rehearsal, internal dialogue, and visualization
Name examples of external cuing techniques often used in OT for PD. visual cues, such as floor markers or cue cards, and auditory cues such as verbal commands, music, or metronomes
How can OT help when the client with PD can no longer participate in activities independently? modifying, adapting, and developing new relationships with their social and physical environments
What are PT aims in helping clients with PD? safety and gross mobility
HOw does physical exercise affect dopamine? increases the synthesis of dopamine in the brain; can stop inflammation which causes destruction of dopamine producing neurons
How does exercise improve brain function? increases the brain's neuroplasticity and neuroprotection
How long do benefits from exercise continue for individuals with PD? >1 year
Name the disease-specific measure of subjective status that is completed by patients Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 (PDQ-39)
What is a major problem with exercise programs for older adults? low adherence rates
What are some of the barriers to exercise program adherence? no interest, poor health, weather, depression, fear of falling, weakness, shortness of breath, and low outcome expectation
What is the purpose of deep brain stimulation (DBS)? alleviate tremors, slowness, and stiffness, and lower Levodopa doses by using a pulse generator to stimulate both sides of the brain
What are the risks associated with ablative surgical procedures? high risk of speech impairments--usually only one side of the brain is treated which is a problem because PD usually affects both hemispheres
How does creativity help older adults? foster sense of competence, purpose, growth, and promotes problem-solving skills in older adults
Define creativity. a process by which individuals explore new ideas and approaches for the purpose of developing an original solution to a predefined or existing problem
List benefits of creative activities. reduce stress, increase self-esteem, and positively impact occupational participation in adults with illness, injury, depression, abuse, trauma, and other chronic conditions
Define "flow" as related to creativity. a sense of altered time and reduced awareness when absorbed in activity
T or F. Creative interventions improve health by increasing self-esteem, and developing cognitive skills to help cope with negative thoughts and combat stress. true
Define dance. integrates the coordination of body movements, performed in synchronization with rhythmical stimuli, usually together with other individuals
Define dance therapy. use of movement to further the emotional, cognitive, physical, and social integration of the individual
Name conditions fro which dance ahs shown to be an effective intervention. schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, dementia, learning disabilities, ADHD, breast cancer survivors, arthritis, and PD
Name benefits of dance interventions. improved self-esteem, mood, body perception and awareness, QoL, well-being, improved ROM and flexibility, reduced fall risk, prevent weight gain; pleasurable activity, strengthen or broaden social relationships
a motivating factor for dance class adherence social participation
3 essential elements of Dance for PD®. 1. guided imagery to direct the desired quality of movement 2. live piano music informs the dancers of how to move 3. instructors call out sequences of movements as well as dancing at the same time as the participant
2 essential elements of Dance for PD®. 4. dancers join hands in center of room, adding tactile input to the already present audio and visual input 5. repetition of dance steps, variations of familiar dance steps, and new sequences are taught, demanding mental focus for movement control
2 more essential elements of Dance for PD®. 6. instructors may adapt movements to individual dancer’s capabilities, problem-solving with the dancer for optimal performance 7. dancers learn various dance styles and have opportunities to choreograph their own sequences working in small groups.
How do auditory cues from music benefit individuals with PD? assist with an even pace and dynamic motion
What area of the brain has been shown in PET scans to have increased activity when limb movements were synchronized to music? basal ganglia
External cues of music and partners in tango might possibly bypass the _____________ by accessing __________________________. basal ganglia, cortical circuitry
Created by: abascas