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Physical agent modalities

What are the major categories of PAMS? thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic
5 examples of thermal (heat transfer) hot packs, cold packs, paraffin, fluido, ultrasound
3 examples of mechanical (movement, pressure in/on body) fluido, ultrasound, whirlpool
4 examples of electromagnetic (electric current) TENS, NMES, Hi Volt, Ionto
General precautions for heating modalities watch for areas of redness (monitor decreased skin integrity, don't use where you don't want to increase metabolic activity
Why is ultrasound used? to increase elasticity or stimulate healing response
Explain superficial settings for ultrasound. 3 MHz, absorbed up to 2 cm in depth
Explain deep settings for ultrasound. 1 MHz, absorbed from 2-5 cm in depth
Precautions for ultrasound. growth plates, carotid arteries, CNS tissue, over plates/screws/cement/replacement sites, also heat precautions, pregnancy
Where do the electrodes go for TENS? on or around the area of pain
Why use TENS? for pain control
How is TENS used for acute pain? to mask the pain and accomplish therapeutic goals
How is TENS used for chronic pain? to increase the pain, get an endorphin release
Why use NMES (neuromuscular E-Stim)? movement, strength, endurance
Where do the electrodes go for NMES? along the muscle belly
Why use High Volt? edema control, wound healing
What is ionto? medication delivery at the site you are treating
What are precautions for E-stim? pacemakers, plastic/metal components, transcranially, transthoracicly, transpinally, heart disease, pregnancy, while driving
What are the thermal effects of ultrasound? heat helps heal and loosen things up, goes deeper than ordinary heating methods, done by friction, smaller areas, skips the skin
What are the non-thermal effects of ultrasound? heals, increases fibroblastic, increases protein synthesis, increases bloodflow
When is heat appropriate? when diagnosis is known and is not from inflammation
When is heat contraindicated? impaired sensation, large scars, impaired cognition, cancer/tumors, acute infection, DVT, cardiac disease, seizures, primary tendon or ligament repair
When are cold packs appropriate? edema, post exercise, arthritis flares, spasticity/muscle spasms, strains to ligaments, tendons--actue, acute tendonitis
Contraindications for cold therapy Raynaud's syndrome, decreased circulation, healing nerves (slows rocess), impaired circulation, healing wounds, cardiac dysfunction
Created by: abascas