Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Spine & Pelvis Final

NWHSU Spine and Pelvis Final Review

QuestionAnswer
Which is the largest branch of the subclavian artery? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Vertebral artery d. Radicular artery Vertebral a.
Which is the correct order of the following: Vertebral artery, subclavian, brachiocephalic artery aortic arch Aortic arch > brachiocephalic trunk > subclavian > vertebral artery
Which section of the vertebral artery goes from subclavian vein to C7? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 1st
Which section of the vertebral artery goes from C1 to foramen magnum and passes medial and posterior to the lateral mass to C1? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 3rd
Which section of the vertebral artery enters at the transverse foramen of C6 and passes through all the transverse foramen? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 2nd
Which section of the vertebral artery goes from the foramen magnum to basilar artery? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 4th
Which section of the vertebral artery has a slight jog from C2 foramen to C1 foramen? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 2nd
Which section of the vertebral artery goes between the longus coli and anterior scalene? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 1st
Which section of the vertebral artery rests in the vetebral notch of the posterior arch? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 3rd
Which section of the vertebral artery rests on the posterior clivus? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th 4th
Which artery arises from two medical branches from vertebral arteries? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Anterior spinal artery
Which artery is anterior to the medican fissure of the cord? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Anterior spinal a.
Which artery supplies the anterior 2/3's of the cord?a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Anterior spinal a.
Which artery has small branches "twigs" that enter the anterior cord? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Anterior spinal a.
Which artery narrows at the conus medullaris? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Anterior spinal a.
Where is the conus medullaris (cona equine) located? Inferior border of a. L1 b.L2 c. L3 d. L4 L1
Which artery originates as a branch from the vertebral arteries? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Posterior spinal a.
Which artery can be located on either side of the posterolateral cord? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Posterior spinal a.
Which artery supplies the posterior 1/3 of the cord?a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Posterior spinal a.
Which artery ends at the cauda equine (conus medullaris)?a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Posterior spinal a.
Which artery is known as a reinforcing network of arteries?a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Radicular a.
This artery is developed from the vertebral artery, deep cervical/acending artery, psoterior intercostals, lumbar and lateral sacral arteries?a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. Radiuclar artery d. Brachiocephalic trunk Radicular a.
Which artery is also known as the Artery of Adamkiewicz? a. Anterior spinal artery b. Posterior spinal artery c. arteria radicularis magna d. Brachiocephalic trunk Arteria radicularis magna (one of the radicular aa.)
Which artery is a laarge radicular artery? a. Lumbar artery b. Artery of Adamkiewicz c. anterior spinal artery d. subclavian Artery of Adamkiewicz
Which artery enters between T9-L3 (lower T/S)? a. Artery of Adamkiewicz b. subclavian c. posterior spinal artery d. brachiocephalic Artery of Adamkiewicz
How long does it take for a wide spread area in the thoracic spine to lead to necrosis of neurons? a. 1-3 min b. 2-4 min c. 3-5 min d. 4-6 min 3-5 min
What is located between the arachnoid and pia? a. artery of adamkiewicz b. transoraminal ligaments c. radicular arteries d. denticulate ligaments Denticulate ligaments
What holds the spinal cord in a central position? a. denticulate ligament b. radicular arteries c. tranforaminal ligament d. anterior spinal artery Denticulate ligaments
What provides protection for the nerve root? a. denticulate ligament b. radicular arteries c. tranforaminal ligament d. anterior spinal artery transforaminal ligaments
Spinal veins are present in which region of the spine? a. Thoracic b. Cervical c. Lumbar d. all regions all regions
Which vein doesn't have any valves? a. Anterior external venous plexus b. posterior external venous plexus c. batson's venous plexus d. internal venous plexus Batson's venous plexus
How does blood return from the pelvis and abdomen? which venous plexus: a. Batson's b. Anterior external c. anterior internal d. posterior external Batson's
Which vessel may have active neoplasms spread to the spine? a. anterior external venous plexus b. basivertebral veins c. intervertebral veins d. batson's vp Batson's vp
Which vessel communicates with the basivertebral and intravetebral veins? which venous plexus: a. anterior external b. anterior internal c. posterior external d. posterior internal anterior external
Which vessel lies along the anterior surface and collects blood from the vertebral body? which plexus: a. posterior external b. posterior internal c. anterior internal d. anterior external anterior external
Which vessel lies on posterior surface of vertebral arch and processes? a. posterior internal veous plexus b. posterior external venous plexus c. basivertebral v. d.vertebral a. posterior external venous plexus
Which vessle lies within the central canal and between osseous structures and dura mater? a. internal venous plexus b. basivertebral vein c. intervertebral vein d. vertebral artery internal venous plexus
Which vessel hsa two channels that run anterior nad posterior to the PLL? a. Batson's venous plexus b. basivertebral vein c. internal venous plexus d. vertebral artery internal venous plexus
Which vessel is a network of veins within the vertebral body? a. Batson's venous plexus b. basivertebral vein c. internal venous plexus d. vertebral artery basivertebral vein
Which vessel is associated with Hahn's venous cleft? a. Batson's venous plexus b. basivertebral vein c. internal venous plexus d. vertebral artery basivertebral vein
Which vessel passes through the IVF's? a. Batson's venous plexus b. basivertebral vein c. internal venous plexus d. vertebral artery intervertebral vein
Which vessel drains the spinal cord, internal and external venous plexus? a. Batson's venous plexus b. basivertebral vein c. internal venous plexus d. intervertebral vein intervertebral vein
Which of the following is/are apart of the main structures of embryological development? a. notochord b. somites c. scelerotomes d. all the above all of the above
Which of the following develops into the primitive axial support structure? a. scelerotomes b. notochord c. somites d. myotomes notochord
Which is the first body framework to appear in the human embryo? a. scelerotomes b. notochord c. somites d. myotomes notochord
Which of the following ultimately becomes the nucleus pulposus? a. scelerotomes b. notochord c. somites d. myotomes notochord
Which appears on the 18th day? a. scelerotomes b. notochord c. somites d. myotomes notochord
Which of the following is derived from mesoderm? a. scelerotomes b. notochord c. somites d. myotomes notochord
Which of the following extends from the skull to the coccyx within the midline? a. scelerotomes b. notochord c. somites d. myotomes notochord
Which of the following becomes skin? a. ectoderm b. endoderm c. somites d. notochord ectoderm
Which of the following becomes the GI tract? a. ectoderm b. endoderm c. somites d. notochord endoderm
Which of the following are paired blocks of mesoderm that lie on either side of the neural tube?a. ectoderm b. endoderm c. somites d. notochord somites
How many pairs of somites are there? a.40-44 b. 41-44 c. 42-44 d. 43-44 42-44
Somites differentiate into which of the following? a. dermatomes b. myotomes c. slerotomes d. all of the above all of the above
Which of the following becomes connective tissue and skin of the back? a. dermatomes b. myotomes c. sclerotomes d. endoderm dermatomes
Which of the following becomes the muscles of the axial skeleton? a. dermatomes b. myotomes c. sclerotomes d. endoderm myotomes
Which becomes the future spine, vertebrae and ribs? a. dermatomes b. myotomes c. sclerotomes d. endoderm sclerotomes
Which is made of mesenchymal tissue? a. dermatomes b. myotomes c. sclerotomes d. endoderm sclerotomes
Which of the following is segmental? a. somite b. notochord c. endoderm d. ectoderm somite (which turns into dermatomes, myotomes and sclerotomes)
Which beings to proliferate at the caudal half? a. notochord b. ectoderm c. sclerotome d. somite sclerotome
True or false, the caudal poortion of one segment unites with the cephalad portion of the adjacent segent? True
A fissure appears in between or in the middle of adjacent whats? a. somites b. myotomes c. sclerotomes d. dermatomes sclerotomes become vertebral bodies
With the caudal/cephalad division of sclerotomes muscles can attach to many many spinal levels? a. one b. two c. three d. four two
What direction do the sclerotomes grow? a. medial b. dorsal c. anterolaterally d. all of the above all of the above
the growth of mesonchyme leads to formation of what? a. outer disc fibers b. nucleus pulposus c. annulus fibrosis d. a&c outer disc fibers and annulus fibrosis
How many chondrification centers appear at the 7th week? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 4
What is the breakdown of the chondification centers? a. 2 for vertebral bodies b. 2 for posterior arch c. 1 for spinous process d. A&B 2 for vertebral bodies and 2 for posterior arch
How many primary ossification centers are there? 3
Primary ossification and union of vertebral arch and body is complete at ______years for the lumbar spine 6
When does ossification begin? 9 weeks
How many secondary ossification centers are there? 9
Which ossification center is/are the last to appear? a. inferior endplate b. superior endplate c. spinous process d. a&b inferior endplate and superior endplate (at about age 17)
What age do all the centers fuse by? 25 years old
How many discs are present in an average spine? 23
How many osseous structures are in an adult spine? 26
True or false, the forces are balanced between the annulus and nucleus? True
What helps with hydration of the discs? a. lipids b. carbohydrates c. proteoglycans d. nucleotides Proteoglycans
Which of the following happens naturally? a. disc bulge b. disc protrusion c. disc extrusion d.disc desiccation Disc Desiccation
Which of the following involves more than 1/4 of the diameter of the disc and may involve the entire disc? a. bulge b. herniation c. protrusion d. extrusion Bulge
Which of the following is defined with the base of the herniation is wider than the outward extent? a. bulge b. protrusion c. extrusion d. slip Protrusion
Which is also known as a prolapse? a. bulge b. protrusion c. extrusion d. slip Protrusion
Which of the following has the annulus fibers that are not completely torn? a. bulge b. protrusion c. extrusion d. slip Protrusion
Which of the following is defined as the nucleus pulposus extends through torn annulus fibers? a. bulge b. protrusion c. extrusion d. slip Extrusion
Which one is known where the outward extension is greater than the base of the herniation? a. bulge b. protrusion c. extrusion d. slip Extrusion
Which one is known where the nucleus pulposus separates from the parent disc and can extend up or down within the central canal? a. bulge b. protrusion c. extrusion d. sequestered disc Sequestered disc
Which one of the following is known where the tear extends circumferentially along a portion of the annulus fibrosus it is also known as the high intensity zone? a. Annular fissure b. protrusion c. extrusion d. sequestered disc Annular fissure
A herniation at C4/5 will likely contact which exiting nerve root? C5 (the cervical nerves are on top of there respective vertebrae, and the rest are on the bottom, C8 does the catch up)
A herniation at L4/5 will likely contact which exiting nerve root? L5 (after the cervicals the nerve is below the vertebral body but above the disc so the enlarged disc can affect the next nerve)
Which level does the L2 nerve root exit? L2/3
Created by: AnatomyMash