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Lab di Lab FINAL

what is serology? the study of antigen-antibody reactions IN VITRO
What are serologic tests used for? identify infactions without culturing the causative agent (hiv, syph, lyme, hep), allowing diagnosis to be made in a more timely manner
What are the two types of seologic principles? 1. tests to detect antibody production (MC) 2. tests for antigen production
What are three serologic tests that detect antibody production? 1. monospot 2. aso 3. rf
what type of antibodies does one with mono(EBV) produce? heterophile antibodies
what do heterophile antibodies react with? with paul-bunnell antigens on sheep and other mammal RBCS
How does monospot test for EBV? uses a reagnent containing latex particles, coated with highly purified antigen from bovine red cell membranes. Latex particles allow visula observation of antien-antibody rxn (agglutination_
what is a name for antibody-antigen rxn? agglutination
What does an elevated level of antistreptolysin O indicate? Past recent infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and can aid in diagnosis of conditions with post-strpt infections such as rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis
How does the rheumajet ASO kit show a positive test A reagent containging latex particles coated with recombinant streptolysin O, if the serum contains abnormally high levels of antistreptolysin O agglutination will be visible.
what is Rheumatoid factor? an IgM autoantibody that acts as an antibody to bind with the Fc region of IgG(antigen)
what are two other possible types of rheumatoid factor? IgA and IgG
What does the Rheumatoid Factor kit use? a reagent containing latex particles coated with human gammaglobulin, if RF is there will agglutinate d/t IgG coated to the latex particles.
What are the three tests for antigen production? CRP (c-reactive protein) 2. rapid group A strep 3. hCG
what can c reactive protein activate? complement
Does ESR or CRP increase and decrease more rapidly? CRP
CRP increases within ______ hours of onset of inflammation 4-6 hours
Is CRP found in normal serum? yes in very low concentrations.
High CRP lacks value when what? when the pts illness is not defined
CRP is high in what illnesses? infectious states, rheumatic fever, RA, MI, malignant tumor, abdomincal abcesses
CRP levels are useful for? monitoring illnesses, and a dif dx in certain dz states
What does the rheumajet CRP kit use? a reagent containing latex particles coated with IgG fraction of an antihuman CRP specific serum.
What is high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) used for? as a predictor of increased risk of acute MI and stroke, it is more sensitive and can detect lower amounts of CRP associtaed with chornic inflammation
What is in the cell walls of group A streptococci which is an antigenic determinant? Carbohydrate A
what illnesses are caused by group A strept? tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and scarlet fever, which can lead to rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. (S. pyogenes)
What does the Rapid group A strept test kit do? extracts Carbohydrate A from the thraot swab, then the sample migrates by capillary action thru a test pad containing anti-strep A antibody. If antigen is present there will be a pink-to purple precipitate on the test pad
How is the hCG kit used? serum or urine placed on sample well of test cassette, if hCG is present it reacts with an antibody specific to the beta subunit of hCG resulting in a pink to purple precipitate on the test pad.
glucose in urine indicates? diabetes, or large amounts of carb intake
bilirubin in urine indicates? biliary obstruction, or hepatitc or liver dz
ketone in urine indicates? decreased intake of carbds dt starvation prolonged vomitting, dehydration, fever, diasbetes insipiidus
what causes specific gravity? concentrating or diluting ability of kidney
low specific gravity? diabetes insipidus or tubular damage
high SG? diabetes mellitus, dehydration, feverm congestive heart failure
what does hemoglobinuria indicate? intravascular hemolysis
what can cause blood in urine? renal dz, trauma, renal stones, strenuous exercise, hemolytic anemia, transfusion rxns
acidic urine? diabetes, starving, high protein diet
basic urine? after meals, bacterial infections, chronic renal failure
first indication of renal dz is? proteinuria
increased protein in urine? renal abnormality, glomerular, tubular damaged or excess overflow
non dz reasons for proteinuria? strenuous exercise, exposure to cold, fever
at what time is the highest excretion of urobilinogen in the urine? between 2 and 4 pm
what may cause increased amounts of urobilinogen? hemolytic anemia, and liver damage
when is there negative urobilingoen? in biliary obstruction
nitrites in urine indicate? indicator of UTI by e. coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, pseudomonas
leukocyte esterase indicates? increased whbs of inflammation, uti
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ltrasaminase primarily of hepatic origin
albumin (ALB) largest single fraction of plasma proteins
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK PHOS) found mainly in liver and bone (also placenta and intestine), in bone is elevated whenever osteoblastic activity occurs (PAGETS, growth, blastic tumors, healing fracs, etc)
Amylase pancrease, greatly increased with acute pancreatitis, variable in chronic pancreatitis
Aspartate amino transferase (AST) transaminase mainly found in mm, including cardiac and liver.
Indirect bilirubin unconjugated (increased prehepatic -- intravascular hemolysis)
direct bilirubin conjugated (hepatic, dz or postbepatic, biliary blockage)
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) produced by protein catabolism in liver, but cleared by and used to assess kidneys (renal clearance), affected by dietary protein intake.
Calcium serum levels dependent on hormonal regulation, increased by PTH and calcitrol, decreased by calcitonin
what causes 90% of hypercalcemia? hyperparathyroidism or malignancy (bone, mets primary, mult myeloma)
Carbon dioxide important buffer in acid-base balance, maintaining blood pH lung and kidney function
chloride major extracellular anion, important in water balance
cholesterol TOTA liver performs lipid metabolism, and monitored to help assess risk of cardiovasc dz
HDL produced by liver, cardioprotective
LDL produced by liver, increased associated with CAD risk
where is creatine kinase found? found in straited mm and brain
when is creatine kinase elevtaed (CK, CPK) with mm damage, brain injury, cardiac damage associated with CK isoenzymes
CK-MB cardiac specific creatine kinsase elevated after mi
creatinine (creat) waste product of creatine metabolism by mm for energy prodctuion, BUT assess renal function as it is cleared by the kidneys
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) found in many tissues, but major source is liver
first enzyme to increase in hepatic dz? GGT
glucose (FBS, FPG) used to assess for glycemic control, dz and monitoring of DM
lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissues, mainly liver, mm, heart lung and kidneys, also found in RBCS
when is LDH increased? hemolytic conditions
lipase pancreatic enzyme, increased in pancreatitis
Magnesium found mostly in bone, and mm (involced with mm contraction)
what can increased levels of magnesium cause? respiratory paralysis and cardiac arrest
Phosphorus most found in bone some in mm, cleared by kidney. Serum levels dependent on hormonal cotrol, increasted by calcitonin, decreased by PTH and calcitrol
when is there increased levels of phos? renal failure (kidneys can't clear phos)
potassium moves into cells along with insulin
when is K increased? renal failure (failure to clear) and renal tubular acidosis
Sodum important in water distribution and maintaining osmotic pressure
when is Na increased? dehydration
triglycerides main storage lipid, not considered an independent risk factors for atherosclerosis, but if HDL decreased theres increased risk of pancreatitis
All other proteins other than albumin are referred to as? globulins
where are almost all plasma proteins produced? liver
What does total protein assess? livers synthetic ability, dependent on nutritional status and normal GI function
decrease in total protein with? hepatic dz, nephrotic dz
increase in total protein? most commonly with dehydration, also multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias
Uric acid end prod of purine metabolism, cleared by kidenys, increased in gout and renal dz
What is included in a lipid panel? total cholest, HDL, LDL< Trigs, and may also include HDl/LDL ratio, high sensitivity CRP
Liver/hepatic function panel consists of? ALT, AST, GGT, Totaly protein, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin (may also include indirect bili, and A/G ratio)
whats included in an electrolyte panel? Na, K, Cl, CO2(HC03)
what is included in a renal function panel? BUN, creatinine, Na, K, Cl, CO2, uric acid, glucose, phos, total protein, albumin, creatinine clearance (24 hr urine collection for golmerular filtration assessment(
What is included in cardiac markers? CK, LDH, AST, CK-isoenzymes (CK-MB), Troponins, myoglobin
Created by: margaretrhager
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