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US Constitution Info

US Constitution

House of Representatives 438 members elected for 2 year term
President is elected for how many years? 4 years
The Judicial Branch of the US Government Headed by the US Supreme Court; they are to interpret and explain the laws and declare laws unconstitutional
The Articles of Conferation rights listed; soverignty of the states, citizens equal, government
Magna Carta rights listed; trial by jury and due process
The declaration of independence rights listed all men are created equal
The articles of conferation rights listed; soverignty of the states, citizens equal; government
The US Constitution rights listed; dominant view over all aspects of government, critical view to protect all rights
Virginia Plan bicamerial legislative branch; drafted by James Madison; known for setting the overall agenda for populated-weighted respresentation
New Jersey Plan small stae plan; presented by William Paterson; 2 houses of crngress... appointed by population
Great Compromise (or Connecticut Compromise) large and small states agreed on bicameral legislative representaiton for each state
3/5ths compromise compromise between souther and northern states 3/5ths of slave population would count
Supremacy Clause "the supreme law of the land"; US Constition, US Treaties highest form of law in our legal system; states follow the law
Full Faith and Credit Clause duties of the state witin the US
Full Faith and Credit Clause duties of the state within the United States
What are the articles of conferation? giving colonies some sense of united government document to act together
DidConvention? revise the article of conferation
What are key individuals at the philadelphia convention and what did they do? george washington, james madison, ben franklin, alexander hamilton, morris, wilson... SUPPORT THE CHANGE... (WMFHM)
What were the main arguments of the Anti-Federalists? Didn't pwant to ratify the constitution; No Bill of Rights; Government had too much power
What were the main arguments of the Federalists? Seperation of power will protect the rights government will override rights
What are the purposes of the Constitution listed in the preamble? explains the weakness of articles caused need for the constitution; freedom, order, equality, values set for American political life; fashions a government
What are Enumerated Powers? What level of government has them? list of items Article 1; US Congress and Supreme Court
What are Reserved Powers? What level of government has them? power to be used Head of State; Legislature
Besides the Bill of Rights, what are other key Amendments in the Constitution? 13th- slavery; 14th-citizenship
The Legisture Powers Article 1; bicamerial Congress, congressional selection, 17 Enumerated Powers
Executive Powers Article 2; Presidential Selection, President System; Qualifications
Judicial Powers Article 3; Judicial selection; Supreme Court
Federalism group of members bound together with a governing head
Dual Federalism legal theory that consists of 2 seperate and co-sovereign branches of government
Cooperative Federalism national, state, and local governments work together
Grants-in-Aid money coming from central government for a specific project
Being prepared... regulations or conditions for recieiving grants from the state or local gov.
Devolution statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to government at a subnational level (ex. mainly financial)
Deregulation government reduces its role and allows industry greater freedom in how it operates.
In federalist no. 51 James Madison said "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition" Explain what this means. Being prepared... resisting encroachment of others, connect human man to constitutional rights
What is the organizational structure of Federalism? power divided and hared between the national government and state government
How is ferealism affected by crises, new technologies and new industries? crises-quick and effictive action; technology-mass transportation, communication industry
What are the main streghts and weaknesses of a Federal system is centralized? Strenght: unity, prevents tyranny, encourages innovation, experimentation in policy; weakness- leads to plicy inconsistency, possible duplicate programs, overwhelms citizen with elections
What are some of the main powers each level of government has? Supreme Court; dual system and reinforce national government
What sections in the Constitution refer to Federalism? Article VI, 10th Amendment (Article 1, Section 8)
Habeas Corpus, Legal action through which a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention
Civil Liberties rigths and freedoms that provide an individual specific rights (ex. slavery, forced labor)restraints on government (Bill of rights)... FREEDOMS
Civil Rights class of rights that protect individuals freedom from unwarranted infringement by governments; discrimination by the government... CITIZENSHIP
Establishedment Clause first of several proucements in the first amendment
Free Exercise Clause accompany establishment clause... "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.:
Lemon Test requirements for legislation concerning religion to move forward... 3 steps
Sherbert Test 4 criteria that are used to determine if an individuaals right to religious freedom has been violated
Imminent Lawless Action defining the limits of freedom of speech
Symbolic speech (us law) describe actions that purposefully and discernibly convey a particular message
Defamation (slander) a claim or statement towards anyone/thing that gives a negative images
Miller Test US Supreme Court test for determining whether speech or expression cn be labeled obscene
Fighting Words words that express to incite hatred a violence from their target
Exclusionary Rule legal principle in the US, holds that evidence collected in violation of the defendants constitutional right
Miranda Rights warning given by police
Gideon V. Wainwright state courts are required under the 6th Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorney (SUS Supreme Court History)
1st Amendment Protects the freedom of religion, speech, and the press, as well as the right to assemble and petition the government
2nd Amendment Protects an individual's right to bear arms
3rd Amendment Prohibits the forced quartering of soldiers out of war time
4th Amendment Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizure and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause
5th Amendment Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domaink protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy
6th Amendment Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel
7th Amendment Provides for the right to trail by jury in certain civil cases, accourding to common law
8th Amendment Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment
9th Amendment Protects rights not enumerated in the constitution
10th Amendment Limits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the Constitution
11th Ammendment Immunity of states from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders. Lays the foundation for sovereign immunity
12th Amendment Revises presidential election procedures
13th Amendment Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime
14th Amendment Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protective Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issues
15th Amendment Prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or pervious condition of servitude
16th Amendment Allows the federal government to collect income tax
17th Amendment Establishes the direct election of the US Senators by popular vole
18th Amendment Establishes Prohibition of alcohol
19th Amendment Establishes women's suffrage
20th Amendment Fixes the dates of term commencements for Congress (January 3)and the President (January 20); known as the "lame duck amendment"
21st Amendment Repeals the Eighteenth Amendment
22nd Amendment Limits the president to two terms, or a maximum of 10 years
23rd Amendment Provides for representation of Washington, DC in the Electoral College
24th Amendment Prohibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll taxes
25th Amendment Codifies the Tyler Precedent; defines the process of presidential succession
26th Amendment Establishes the official voting age to be 18 years old.
27th Amendment Prevents laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until the beginning of the nxt session of Congress
What are protected types of speech? Political, ymbolic, freedom of assembly, freedom of press
What types of speech are not protected fighting workds, defmation, obscenity
Under what conditions is 'Prior Restraint' allowed by the Courts? press is protected from prior restraint, this protection can be limited under circumstances that trhreaten national security
What does 'Due Process' mean? all citizens are protected under the rule of law and that the government has to ensure the fair application of the law
How did the 14th amendment and selctive incorporation reverse Dual Citizenship? How long did that take? By declaring that all citizens where equal under the US laws not the state; 57 years... the bill of rights applied to all states and everyone was protected
What is the 'Right to Privacy'? How is it 'created' from the Bill of Rights? relationship lying within the zone of privacy; implicated in amendments 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 14
Affirmative Action policeies that take factors "race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation ornational origin"
Reverse Discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group
3/5th's Compromise between south and north states... 3/5th of slave pop would count for respresentation
Abolitionists movement to end slavery
Dred Scott v. Sanford African descent brought into the US and held as slaves were not UW citizens or protected
Missouri Compromise of 1820 agreement pro-slavery and anti slavery... regulation of slavery in western territories
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln proclaimed freedom of slaves in 10 states
Civil War Amendments 13,14,15 amendments
Jim Crow Laws state and local laws on separation of black and whites
Plessy v Ferguson Supreme Court decision on racial segreation in public
Suffragists womans right to vote "suffer"
Seneca Falls Convention womens' right convention
19th Amendment women can vote
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas joined all schools (no longer segregated)-unconstitual
Voting Rights Act of 1965 discriminatory voting practices changed against african americans
Protection Legislation Protect woment from certain hazards or difficulties in work... more jobs from men
Sexual Harassment intimidation, bullying or coercion of sexual nature for sexual favors
Suspect Classifications groups meetings a series of criteria suggesting they are subject of discriminate
What was the effect of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott? changed the policy of transportation
Who was Martin Luther King, Jr, and what did he do in the Civil Rights Movement? He was 1st President of the Southern Christain Leadership conference (SCLC); peaceful protest in the south
What are the major provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? empowered the nation I government to oversee state efforts at compliance and the bypass state courts of racial discrimination
What is the 'Strict Scrutiny' test? When is it used? highest standard of review... when the government discriminates against individuals based on their reace, religion or national orgin or infringes or any individuals fundamental freedom, the court uses this to determine if the action warranted
What are the requirements for legal aliens to gain US Citizenship? green card, 18 or older, lived here lawfully for 5 years, physically present in the US for 2 1/2 years, haven't spent more than 1 yr out of the US, no primary home out of the US, live in state 3 months where applying, test and swear to follow the law
Article 1 powers of congress; legistrative and federal government
Bicameral practicing of having 2 legislative or parliamentary chambers
Reapportionment process of allocating the political power of a set of constituent boters among their reprentatives in a gioverning body
Incumbents existing holder of a political office
Gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a political party or group by manipulating geographic boundries (unbalanced boundries)
Baker v Carr US Supremem Court... enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide reapportionment cases
Bill a law put before a legistlaure
Committe Small assembly
Seniority being in charge over another
Hearings proceeding before the court
Mark-Up a legislative session held to amend bills
Rules Committe is a commitee of the US House of Representation
Fillibuster type of parliamentary procedure
Cloture motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end
Pocket Veto legislative maneuver in federal lawmaking that allows a president to veto a bill
Majority Party/Minority Party holds majority in the legislature; other is minority
Speaker of the House presiding officer... moderat debate, make rulings, results and discipline members who break the procedures of the house
Whips group to ensure party discipline in a legislature
Unified Government process is staggered (1 party has more)
Divided Government snail pace (even numbers)
Earmarks provision that directs approved funds to be spent on specific projects, or exemptions from taxes
How does a Bill become a Law? (Or what is the Legislative Process within the House and Senate?) bill goes to congress, committee debates,house of representative, senate, white house=president to sign
Who is the Constitutional leader of the Senate versus who is the political party leader in the Senate? VP of the US-elected leaders of their party
What are the different types of Committees in Congress? Rule Committee; standing-persist from one congress to the next conference-temporary form at the end of the leg. process joint-both House and Senate but no leg. authority special
What are things that influence Legislators' behavior? re-election (career)
Explain Delegat and Trustee views on representaion. delegates-chooses to follow the dictates of the constituency; trustee-rely on their own judgement about what is in the best interests of the public
Impeachment formal process in which an official is accused of an unlawful activity... removal
Globalization increasing gobal relationships of culture, people, and economic activity
Pardons forgiveness of a crimal penalty (head of state or president)
War Powers Rsolution federal law intended to check the power of the president in committing the US to an armed conflict without the consent of congress
Explain the main roles of the President. responsiblities granted to him by the Constitution (Express Powers); responsiblities interpreted by presidents as necessary to faithfully execute the laws (Implied powers)
Explain Barber and Neustadt's theories of Presidential Personality and Leadership Neustadt-power to persuade; Barber-active positive, personality and character
Bureaucracy an organization of non-elected officials of a government who implement rules and laws
Cabinet a group of high ranking gov officials (executive branch)
Departments large organization w/specific responsiblities
Government Corporations legal entity created by a government to undertake commercial activites on behalf of the government
Independent Agencies a regulatory agency that is independent from other branches of the government
Issue network groups who unite in order to promote a single issue in government policy
Iron Triangle 3 sided relationship between Congress, Federal gov, particular industry
Spoils System a practice where a plitical party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to voters as a reward for winning
Progressive Era a period of social activism a political reform that flourished 1890-1920's
Civil Service employees in gov (not military)
Merit System promoting and hiring government employee's based on ablities
Great Society set of domestic programs in the US promoted by president Johnson (1960's)
Discretion make decisions which represent a responsible choice
Privatization process of transferring ownership of buisness, property, etc.
How many Federal Government Departments are in the President's Cabinet? 15 departments; agriculture, commerce, defense, education, energy, health, homeland security, housing, interior, labor, state, transportation, treasury, Veteran Affairs, attorney general
Explain the Rgulatory Process. "rulemaking" process; federal government departments carry out the intent of legislation, enacted by Congress
Original Jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time
Appellate Jurisdiction when a court has the power to review a lower courts decision (power of the Supreme Court)
Marbury V . Madison (Article 3) 1st time declaring it unconstitutional... decision helped the boundry between the constitutionally seperate executive and judicial branches
Judicial Review the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review
Case dispute between opposing parties, being resolved by court of law
Standing term for the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law
Judicial Restraint encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power
Original Intent theory in law concerning constitutional and statutory interpretation
Judicial Activism judicial rulings suspected of being based on personal or political considerations rather than on existing law
Amicus Curiae someone who volunteers to offer information to assist a court in deciding a matter before it
Concurring Opinion a written opinion of judge(s) of a court which agrees with the decision made by the constitution
Dissenting Opinion an opinion in a legal case written by one or more judges expressing disgreement with the majority opnion of the court
Supreme Court Highest Court
Appellate Courts Second highest court; US Courts of Appeals; 12 regional circut courts of appeals; 1 US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circut
Trial Courts 3rd Highest Court; US District Courts; 94 Judicial Districts; US Bankruptcy Courts; US Court of International Trade; US Court of Federal Claims
Federal Courts and other entities outside the Judicial Branch Lowest of Federal Courts; Military Courts (Trial and Appellate); Court of Veteran's Appeals; US Tax Court; Federal administrative agencies and boards
Judicial Branch-Section 1 grants judicial power; creats the supreme court; gives congress pwer over establishing lower courts of the federal judiciary; permits justices to hold office; prohibits Congress from decreasing the salaries of judges
Judicial Branch-Section 2 Extends power of the federal courts to cases concering-constitution, federal laws, treaties, public officials, controveries involving the US, states, citizens; establishes trail by jury
Judicial Branch-Section 3 Defines the crime of treason; clarifies the requirements of a conviction of treason; gives Congress power over the punishment for treason
How many cases does the Supreme Court hear? less than 1 person are submited
What is the process for deciding Supreme Court cases? 1st-there must be an actual case/controversey invoving 2 adversarial parties;2nd-the parties involved must have standing;3rd-cases that are moot do not qualify for consideration;4th-cases that are not ripe do not qualify
Public Opinion basic principle that people hold about government; the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs of an adult individual
Socioeconomic Status is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individuals/family economomic and social position in relation to others (income/education/occupation)
Political ideology a certain ethical set of ideals, principles, doctrines etc that explain how society should work
Liberal belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights
Conservative promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions (little change)
Moderate individual who is not extreme partisan or radical
Libertarian emphasize freedom, individual liberty, voluntary association
Communism a movement to creat a classless, moneyless, stateless social order structured upon common owership of the meas production
Socialism an economic system characterized by social ownership and control of the means of production
Exit Poll poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations
Random Sampling based on lists derived through voter registration, driver license apllications
Margin of Error the likelihood that the responses give in a poll do not exactly reflect the opinions of the population at large
Honeymoon Period early days of the presidents administration, presidents enjoy high level of public approval
Explain the five steps to fill a Supreme Court vacancy. Step 1-got to law school; step 2-understand the role of the Supreme Court; step 3-become a federal judge; step 4-be political; step 5-ace confirmation hearing (senate)
Conventional participation common actions, considered, culturally acceptable at a given time in history that communicate preferences through established institutions (ex. voting)
Unconventional participation actions less ommon, take place outside of established institutions (protest, boycott ex)
Prospective voting basing voting decsions on forcasts of future political behavior
Retrospective voting evaluted candidates based on their experience or past performance
Voter turnout 2 trends... it's declined since 1960 and it remains lower than other industrialized countries
Social capital degree of civic connectedness within the community or state
Franchise that right to vote
Voter fatigue a phenomenon that occurs when voters lose interest in politics as a result of being asked to vote too frequently and on 2 many decisions
Midterm elections federal elections occuring between presidential election years
What types of groups would us unconventional forms of political participation to have their political voices heard? Marginalized groups that have been denied access to institionalized modes of participation and groups seeking to attract awareness to their cause
How is socioeconomic status an indicator of political participation? because they all more likely to participate policially; socioeconomic status=individuals w/more education, higher income, and white collar jobs
Explain how deomgraphic characteristics and character traits influence voter choices. voters are largely drawn to candidates who share their own demographic profile. (voters feel a sense of resemblance... personal appearance or shared experience
What is the current voter turn-out rate? less than 73% (apro 55%)
Why does America have a lower voter turn-out rate than other countries? Differences in voting laws and electoral systems among countries
Political Party an organized coalition of interests that seek to influence government and plicy by getting members elected to public office and by coordination the actions of elected officals
Party Platform the document or statement developed by a political party to include its official positions on issued public concern
Political machines party organiztion at the state or local level that sought political influence by offering rewards, in the form of government jobs and services, to sympathetic voters and party workers
Party Activists individuals who run/lobby for a party
Two-Party System democrats and republicans
Third Parties minor parties
Duverger's Law a principle by which political systems with single-member plurality districts are likely to have a 2-part system
Critical election dividing loyality
Progressive Era woman's suffrage
Initiative a means by when voters consder measures to change local ordiances, state statues, constitution
Referendum for citizens to particpate in policy making by voting directly on a variety of measures including initiatives or recalls
Recall a means for voters to remove an elected official before the expiration of the office holders term
Straight-ticketing voting practice of voting for candidates of the same part
Split ticket voting a ballot on which the voter has chosen candidates from different political parties
What are the main functions of political parties? to organize and stratigize to get a certain individual into office... party to carry out a number of functions, increasing it's influence over both governmetn and public policy
Explain the Responsible Party Model of government. that parties can increase government accountablity if voters are given clear policy choices by the parties and then hold the parties responsible for carrying out campaign promises at the next election
Explain the main advantages of the Two-Party System. promotes stability; polictics reflect median of public opinion; checks and blances political power; guarntees a legislative majority; simplified vote choice
Explain the main disadvantages of the Two-Party System. no new ideas; slow change; leads to no difference in party platforms; limits access to minor parties; limits voter choice; doesn't encourage coalition building; leads to polarized and adversarial politics
What is a difference between the American electoral system and a proportional representation system? American electioral system places Dem. and Rep. against each other; Proportional one would be president the runner up would be the VP
What were the differences between the Federalist and the Anti-Federalists during the effort ot ratify the Constitution? Different views...fed:survival of the young nation required a stronger central government; Anti-fed: feared that a stong central gov. would threatened individuals rights and state sovereignty.
What actions led to the development of both the Democratic Party in 1828 and the Republican Party in 1854? Election of 1828
Who were the leaders that galvanized each party to form? (1828) Andrew Jackson-Democrate Abraham Lincoln-Republican
Political legitimacy a view of citizens that their government has the lawful authority ot govern
General elction a nation election held every two years as required by the constitution
Caucus a local meeting of party members in which the party's nominee is selected
Primary Election an election conducted within a political party to select its candidates for general election
Open primary a type of primary election in which voters don't have to be registered with a political party in order to participate in voting for that parties nominees
Closed primary a type of primary election in which voters are required to be registered with a political party in order to participate in voting for that party nominees
Plurality voting a system in which the single winner of the most votes wins the election (even if the candidate doesn't capture a majority of the vote.)
Frontloading states moving their parties earlier and earlier into the election sessions.... more influence
National conventions party meetings held every 4 years to establish party platforms... official nom for president
Nominee canidate nominateed by commitee (votes) to run for position
Electoral College an institution created by the constitution to permit indirect election of the president
How are Delegates selected? Nominated
Describe the difference between a primary, a caucus and a general election. General-election... 2 years bennial, Pres and VP; Caucus-group vot nominee; Primary-voters vote nominee
What are the strengths of the Electoral College? preserves the principle of federalis; process is easier froma technical perspective; small staes get to exert influence over the Presidential election
What are the weakness of the Electoral College? candidate can win the popular vote but lose the election; concentrates campaign activity in battleground on swing states
What is the difference betwen a campaign strategy and campaign tactics? strategies(focus): party-oriented (party background), issue-oriented (issues), candidate-oriented (personal); tactics (how to do it)
Distinguish between Hard and Soft money contributions to political campaigns. Hard money-limiting individuals to $1000, Political Action Committes (PAC) to $5000... directly to candidate for office; soft money-not restrictions... opertional expenses (unregulated)
Describe how campaigns have moved from being party-centered to candidate-centered. Consequence of the structure of the American electoral system
Private Interests those interest that benefit individuals or selct groups without benefitting the whole
Public interests those interest that benefit the whole as opposed to benefitting a select group
Lobbing political party that aims to influence government plicy making
PAC's political action committees (raise large sums of money to fcontribute to the campaigns)
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) regulations on the financing of political campaigns
527 organizations established by individuals/groups with the aim of raising money to contribute
Electioneering political activity that aims to impact the outcome of an election
Collective action problem and free riders situation faced by groups attempting to coordinate activities/efforts of membership; (free riders) those who attempt to benefit from a collective effort without working towards its achievenment
Interest group entrepreneur an individual who attempts to organize people with shared interest to take collective action
What is the difference between interest groups and political parties? interest goups-groups around specific topics; political parties: politcal theme and association
What are the types of interest groups? environment; animals; civil rights
What is the purpose of lobbying? to impact political decision making, indirect influence over policy through election activites
Describe the three types of benefits drived from joining interest groups. 1. meet like minded individuals and work toward personal policy goals; 2-citizens a sense of community; 3-outlet for expressing political views
James Madison in Federalist #10 said information about factions or interst groups (quote)... What does it mean? group mentality is rooted in human nature. Wherever people are free to have their own ideas, own private property, practice their own beliefs and endorse their own preferred political candidate, factions or interest groups will develop.
Describe three advantages of interest group politics. they pressure government for change; they provide the organizational framework necessary for mobilization of shared interest and collective action; they foster communities of like-minded individuals and provide opportunities
Describe three disadvantages of interest group politics. they encourage conflict; they overemphasize minortiy interst to the neglect of majority preferences; they can slow down the policymaking process and sometimes obstruct policy action altogether.
Print media newspaper/magazines (mass media)
Broadcast media radios/television (mass media)
New media internet/interactive (mass media)
Market-driven journalism jouralism practices driven by increasing advertising revenue, circulation and profit
Soft news or infotainment information and entertainment
Libel defamation in written form
Yellow journalism style of reporting which a journalist exaggerate or ever fabricate news stories for increase circulation
Agenda setting the process of getting issues on the political agenda
Priming process of how the media influences the way people think
Framing process by which media encourages viewers to interpret journalistic stories in a perticular way
How does the Press influence citizens? the news format shapes the amount of information and conent of information provided to audiences
Compare the regulation of the media in the US to media regulation in other countries. Moderate...less restrictive
What are the responsiblities of the Federal Communication Commission? licenses radio and TV, oversee wireless communication, enforces's legislation concerning communication and educates the public about the telecommunications
What did the Watergate scandal affect the relationship between the press and the government? media adopted a much more aggressive and critical position toward government, the press viewed it's role as providing not just neutral coverage but adversarial oversight.
Democratic National Committee promotes the election of party candidates with both technical and fiancial support, while working with national, state, and local party organizations, including elected officials, candidates, constituencies, and grassroots volunteers across the country.
Democratic Governors Association was founded in 1983 to support the candidacy of Democratic governors throughout the nation. It provides political and strategic assistance to gubernational campaigns. it also plays an integral role in developing positions on key state and federal issues
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committe purpose is to elect more Dmocrats to the US Senate... grassroots organizaing,candidate recruitment, campaign funds, trying to increase the number of Democratic senators. They provide services like olling, radio & tv commercials, fundrasing
Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee serves as the official national Democratic campaign committe charged with recruiting, assisting, funding, and electing Democrats to the US House of Representatives.
Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee provides strategic servies and financial assistance to Deomcratic leaders and candidates at the state legistlative level.
Association of State Democratic Chairs their mission is to help build strong state parties in order to elect Democrats from the statehouse to the White House. They do this by focusing exclusively on the current and future needs of the party.
State Democratic Parties they work to elect local, state, and federal candidates in their states. Democrats are committed to building the party from the ground up, in every single precinct in the country.
The Constitution consists of the preamble, seven original articles, and 27 amendments
The Preamble establish the fact that the federal government has note of what follws the preamble, as amended "we the people"
Article 1 of the US Constitution Legislative power
Article 2 of the US Constitution Executive power
Article 3 of the US Constitution Judicial Power
Article 4 of the US Constitution States powers and limits
Article 5 of the US Constitution Process of amendments
Article 6 of the US Constitution Federal power
Article 7 of the US Constitution Ratification
What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? weak central government; no executive branch to carry out the laws and no established power over the states, this government was nearly incapable of action
Bill of Rights states all men and women (aristocrate and commoner) all rights, prohibited the king from levying taxes, banned cruel and excessive punishments, right to free speech, bear arms
Additional weaknesses of the Article of Confederation? 2nd-required unanimous consent for ratification and amendment; 3rd-omission of executive
Preamble of the Constitution states Stronger National Government
Bill of Rights included... 1st-10th Amendments
How did the Federalist feel about the ratification of the US Constitution? They supported it.
What was the relationship betwen the states and the central government under the Articles of Conferation? the central government was weak... there wasnt a an executive brand to follow through with the laws
The 17th Amendment brought what change? shifted power over the selction of senators from state legislature sto voters
Grants-in-Aids federal funding given to state and local government
Block Grants federal funding given to states to spend on general programs
Categorical Grants federal funding given to state and local government for narrow purposes specified by the federal government
Preempt to impose national requirements on states based on the constitution's supremeacy clause
Which level is decentralized in the Federal System? Strength
Which level is national in the Federal System? Strength
De Jure Segregation Segregation into racial groups
Express Powers responsiblities for the president granted to him by the constitution
Implied Powers responsiblities for the president interpeted by president to faithfully execute the law and protect the constitution
Delegated Powers responsiblities for the president delegated by congress to implement legislation
Clientele Agency an executive cabinet department that represents the interests of a particular group
Explain the key agents of early political socialization family, activities at school, participation in religious organization, interactions with peers
What affects approval ratings of the President and Congress president economic fluctuations, political scandals, national crises; stable
How are Delegates selected? What do they do? causcus or primary election; qualify for the state ballot, then win the general election
How are members of the Electoral College chosen? state votes on election day
What is the election cycle? the day after general election for the office to the day of the next general election for that office
What are the steps in a congressional election? it takes place every 2 years; run and raise their own funds; registered voters cast their votes in a general election; canidate with the mostes votes wins; canidate must win a majority of electoral votes to win; whomever wins takes position
Slander a malicious, false, and defamatory statement or report
Paid media vs. free media free media is favorable publicity gained through promotional efforts other than advertising vs paid media, which refers to publicity gained through advertising.Earned media often refers specifically to publicity gained through editorial influence
The Legislative Branch of the US Government To create bills that become laws; can declare war; approve or reject Supreme Court justices appointed by the President
The Executive Branch of the US Government President is the head; jobs of the presient are to approve or reject bills, shape relations with foreign countries, appoint Supreme Court Justices.
Congress has 2 parts Senate; House of Representative
Senate has how many members 100 members; 2 from each state
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