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Biology 11 7-8-9

Grade 11 Biology Evolution Chapter 7, 8, 9

Adaptation a structure, behaviour, or physiological process that helps an organism survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Adaptive radiation the diversification of a common ancestral species into a variety of differently adapted species
Allopatric speciation speciation in which a population is split into two or more isolated groups by a geographical barrier; also called geographical speciation
Analogous structure structures of organisms that do not have a common evolutionary origin but perform similar functions
Artificial selection selective pressure exerted by humans on populations in order to improve or modify particular desirable traits
Biogeography the study of the past and present geographical distribution of species populations
Biotechnology the use of technology and organisms to produce useful products
Bottleneck effect changes in gene distribution that result from a rapid decrease in population size
Catastrophism the idea that catastrophes such as floods, diseases, and droughts periodically destroyed species living in a particular region, allowing species from neighbouring regions to repopulate the area
Convergent evolution a pattern of evolution in which similar traits arise because different species have independently adapted to similar environmental conditions
Descent with modification Darwin’s theory that natural selection does not demonstrate progress, but merely results from a species’ ability to survive local conditions at a specific time
Directional selection natural selection that favours the phenotypes at one extreme over another, resulting in the distribution curve of phenotypes shifting in the direction of that extreme
Disruptive (diversifying) selection natural selection that favours the extremes of a range of phenotypes rather than intermediate phenotypes; this type of selection can result in the elimination of intermediate phenotypes
Divergent evolution a pattern of evolution in which species that were once similar to an ancestral species diverge, or become increasingly distinct
Ecological niche the ecological role and physical distribution of a species in its environment
Embryology the study of early, pre-birth stages of an organism’s development
Evolution the process of genetic change in a population over time
Extinct describes a species that has completely disappeared from Earth
Fitness the ability of an organism to produce viable offspring capable of surviving to the next generation
Fossil record the remains and traces of past life that are found in sedimentary rock; it reveals the history of life on Earth and the kinds of organisms that were alive in the past
Founder effect a change in a gene pool that occurs when a few individuals start a new isolated population
Gene Flow the net movement of alleles from one population to another due to the migration of individuals
Genetic Drift the change in frequencies of alleles due to chance events in a breeding population
Gradualism a model of evolution that views evolutionary change as slow and steady, before and after a divergence
Homologous structure structures that have similar structural elements and origin but may have a different function
Inheritance of acquired characteristics the idea that characteristics acquired during an organism’s lifetime can be passed on to its offspring
Mimicry a structural adaptation in which a harmless species resembles a harmful species in coloration or structure
Monoculture the agricultural practice of planting large expanses of uniform varieties of the same species.
Mutation a permanent change in the genetic material of an organism; the only source of new genetic variation
Natural selection the process by which characteristics of a population change over many generations as organisms with heritable traits survive and reproduce, passing their traits to offspring
Non-random mating mating among individuals on the basis of mate selection for a particular phenotype or due to inbreeding
Paleontology the study of ancient life through the examination of fossils
Post-zygotic isolating mechanism a barrier that prevents hybrid zygotes from developing into viable, fertile individuals; also called post-fertilization barrier
Pre-zygotic isolating mechanism a barrier that either impedes mating between species or prevents fertilization of the eggs if individuals from different species attempt to mate; also called pre-fertilization barrier
Punctuated equilibrium a model of evolution that views evolutionary history as long periods of stasis, or equilibrium, that are interrupted by periods of divergence
Selective advantage a genetic advantage that improves an organism’s chance of survival, usually in a changing environment
Selective pressure environmental conditions that select for certain characteristics of individuals and select against other characteristics
Sexual selection natural selection for mating based, in general, on competition between males and choices made by females
Speciation the formation of new species from existing species
Stabilizing selection natural selection that favours intermediate phenotypes and acts against extreme variants
Survival of the fittest the idea that the organisms that are the fittest leave the most offspring, so those organisms win the struggle for survival; phrase coined by John Spencer
Sympatric speciation speciation in which populations within the same geographical areas diverge and become reproductively isolated
Theory in science a theory is a set of principles that explain and predict phenomena. All theories in science are based on an immense amount of observed evidence
Theory of evolution by natural selection a theory explaining how life has changed, and continues to change, during Earth’s history
Transitional fossil a fossil that shows intermediary links between groups of organisms and shares characteristics common to two now separate groups
Uniformitarianism Charles Lyell’s theory (based on Hutton’s theory) that geological processes operated at the same rates in the past as they do today
Variation differences between individuals, which may be structural, functional, or physiological
Vestigial structure a structure that is a reduced version of a structure that was functional in the organism’s ancestors
Created by: marsenault