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Revolutions

Definitions from American, French & Irish Revolution

QuestionAnswer
Enlightenment Writers People who argued that the rule came not from God but from the people.
Two countries that controlled America in 1765 Spain and Britain
Revolution The overthrow of a government
Rebellion An organised attempt to overthrow a ruler or government
Colony A territory controlled by another country that is usually far away
Two groups of Americans that were treated very badly in the colonies Slaves and the Native Indians
Stamp Act A tax an official documents. e.g. Wills
'No Taxation without Representation' The Americans did not have any representatives in British parliament and felt it was not right to tax
Townshend Act A tax/duty on goods such as glass & tea imported into America
Patriots Those who felt that the Americans should control their own affairs
Boston Massacre British soldiers retaliating for a mob attack
Boston Tea Party Overthrowing tea that came into the harbour in response to a tax still on tea
First Continental Congress A meeting of twelve out of thirteen colonies that showed the colonies could work together.
Minutemen Volunteer soldiers (militias) that were prepared to take action at a minute's notice
Battle of Lexington First shots were fired
Loyalists or Tories Those who remained loyal to the King
Battle of Bunker Hill Washington's first victory
Thomas Paine Author of Common Sense, an attack on King George III and a call for complete independence
Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Declaration of Independence
4th July 1776 Birth of U.S.A. (Independence Day)
Trenton A surprise attack on the British, Christmas Day 1776
Saratoga General Gates (with the help of the French) forced the British army to surrender - turning point of the war
Yorktown General Cornwallis surrendered and Americans had won - October 1781
Treaty of Versailles Recognition of the U.S.A. as an independent country
Democracy People electing a government
Constitution A document that sets out how a country is run
Federal System Where each state would have control over their matters such as business and education
House of Congress The part of the government that passes the laws
Why did the British decide to tax the colonies? To get the Americans to pay for the costs incurred from the French Indian War
What was the Boston Massacre? British soldiers opened fire after being attack by an American mob
Why did the Boston Tea Party happen? The Americans were still unhappy that cheap tea was still being taxed
Why did Congress choose George Washington as commander-in-chief? Due to his bravery, judgement and common sense
How did George Washington show good leadership at Trenton 1776? He launched an attack on the British and caught them completely by surprise
Why was the Battle of Saratoga the turning point in the war? Led by General Gates they forced a large British army to surrender
First Estate The Clergy
Second Estate The Nobles
Third Estate Remaining 95% of the population. made up of commoners and bourgeoisie
Why did the nobles force the king to call and Estates General? The nobles did not want to give the king more money
Tennis Court Oath The Third Estate swore they would continue to meet in an indoor tennis court until their demands were met
Slogan of the French Revolution Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Jacobins Robespierre's political party
Why was the Civil Constitution of the Clergy introduced? Most revolutionaries disliked the Catholic Church because it supported the kings and nobles
Law of Suspects A Revolutionary Tribunal that tried anyone suspected of treason
Why did members of the Convention turn against Robespierre? They feared they might be next for execution
Protestant Ascendancy Wealthy families dominating Parliament
Penal Laws Laws passed against Catholics to stop them becoming powerful
An Argument on Behalf of the Catholics in Ireland Wolfe Tone's Pamphlet, written in 1791
Who set up the United Irishmen? Wolfe Tone, William Drennan, Henry Joy McCracken and Thomas Russell. James Napper Tandy (Dublin branch)
In which counties did the rebellion begin? Kildare, Meath and Carlow
Why did the rebellion break out in Wexford? Terrified by reports of massacres in Wicklow and anger at the government's use of terror
How was the rebellion defeated in Wexford? British superior weaponry
Created by: NoogalD