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CLEP AG court cases

Brown v. Board of Education Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson. Forced the Integration of public schools. Focused on the integration of public schools. Used in 1955 to speed the process of integration. 1954
California Board of Regents v. Bakke Race can be used as a complex factor when determining admission. The case did strike down that refusal because saving spaces for minorities violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 1978
Engel v. Vitale Declared school prayer unconstitutional. 1962
Gibbons v. Ogden Allowed congress to have wider power over interstate commerce. The opinion of the court stated that commerce. 1824includes all kinds of business and trade between nations and the states. 1824
Gideon v. Wainwright Federal defendants must be provided with an attorney at the states expense if one the defendant cannot afford it. 1963
Gitlow v. New York Extended the 14th amendment to the States. The states are not allowed to violate the rights specified in the 14th amendment and extended the Bill of Rights. 1925
Griswold v. Connecticut The Court ruled that a state unconstitutionally interfered with personal privacy in the marriage relationship when it prohibited anyone, including married couples, from using contraceptives. 1965
Korematsu v. United States Case involving Japanese internment camps during WWII. The decision said that needs for national security during a crisis justified internment camps. The court did not deal with the touchy issue of discrimination but rather the national crisis of war. 1944
Lemon v. Kurtzman This case attempted to clarify the meaning of separation of church and state. The court established the Lemon test which has three parts. 1971
Mapp v. Ohio Exclusionary Rule - Evidence obtained in violation of the 4th amendment or other amendments may not be used in court. 1961
Marbury v. Madison Court established Judicial Review. One of the checks on Congress. 1803
McCulloch v. Maryland Elastic Clause of the Constitution - Congress had the power to create a national bank. "Necessary and Proper" clause. 1819
Miranda v. Arizona Guarantees due process. Must read one's rights while in custody before questioning. Inform that they have the right to remain silent, that anything they say can and will be used against them, and the right to counsel. 1966
Near v. Minnesota Case centered on censorship - government cannot censor something (newspapers) because that restricts freedom of the press. Main issue was government officials were being criticized and wanted to censor the criticism. 1931
Plessy v. Ferguson Separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites. 1896
Reno v. ACLU It is not a crime to display "indecent" or "patently offensive" material on the internet. 1997
Roe v. Wade A "fetus" is not a person with constitutional rights therefore protecting a woman's right to have an abortion. 1973
Schenck v. United States Sustained the Espionage Act of 1917 by maintain that freedom of speech and of the press could be constrained under "Clear and Present Danger". 1919
Dred Scott v. Sanford Nullified the Missouri compromise, further tension between north and south. Slaves were not citizens but property, did not have constitutional protection, were not free just because they traveled to a free state or territory. 1857
Texas v. Johnson Flag burning is protected under the first amendment as a form of symbolic speech. 1989
Tinker v. Des Moines School District Students may wear armbands as a form of protest. It is a form of speech protected under the first amendment. 1969
United States v. Nixon Ruled that neither separation of powers, nor the need to preserve the confidentiality of presidential communications alone could justify an absolute executive privilege of immunity from judicial demands for evidence to be used in a criminal trial. 1974
Escobedo v. Illinois Criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the 6th Amendment. 1964
Created by: pinetreeacademy
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