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ChiroBoards3: Blood, Lymph, Genitourinary

Multiple round, freely moveable masses can be palpated. bilateral breast tenderness that is made worse with caffeine intake, ovulation, or menses. Fibrocystic breast disease
Most common benign breast tumor, usually less than 30 years old. non-tender, single lump. 75% unilateral = Fibroadenoma
Second most common cause of cancer death in women = Breast cancer
most common cancer in women over 50 = Breast cancer
Most common location breast cancer is found = upper/outer quadrant
presents with nipple retraction, bleeding, orange peel appearance, and dimpling = Breast cancer
"Paget's dx of the breast" aka = Breast cancer
Tortuous dilation of the spermatic veins = varicocele
"Bag of worms", feeling upon palpation that diminishes from standing to supine = (spermatic veins) = Varicocele
A fluid filled mass in the epididymus. Its painless, movable, pea sized lump located superior/posterior to the testes = Spermatocele
When a patient has spermatocele, they will not have transilumination of epidydmus = T/F? False
Epididymus is not a consequence of an STD = T/F ? False
Excess accumulation of water in the testicles. It transluminates. = hydrocele
To relieve the scrotal tenderness, you can lift the testes = in what condition? epididymitis
Most common form of cancer in males age 20-34 = Testicular cancer
most common cancerous nodule seen with testicular cancer? seminoma
Enlarged non tender, firm, smooth, with loss of median sulcus (male genitourinal disorder) = Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Boggy, soft, enlarged, tender, with urinary problems such as increased urgency = Prostatitis
Prostate: posterior lobe is hard, nodular, painless, and enlarged. = Prostatic carcinoma
Where and what route is most common for metastasis, in Prostatic carcinoma Most common place to metastasize is to the lumbar spine via Batson's plexus
Most prostatic metastasis's are _____________ lesions (80%) plastic lesions
erect penis or clitoris[1] does not return to its flaccid state, despite the absence of both physical and psychological stimulation, within four hours Priapism
foreskin cannot be fully retracted over the glans penis Phimosis
condition of the testes involving inflammation. It can also involve swelling and frequent infection. Orchitis
the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect regarding male genitalia Cryptorchidism
Instead of opening at the tip of the glans of the penis, the urethra opens anywhere along a line (the urethral groove) running from the tip along the underside (ventral aspect) of the shaft hypospadius
urethra running along the dorsal side of the penis, creating an abnormal opening along the penis shaft. epispadius
most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause is a congenital malformation known as a "bell-clapper deformity" testicular torsion
Vascular Disease: Artery temp = cool
Vascular Disease: Artery skin color = pale or blue
Vascular Disease: Artery pulse = weak or absent
Vascular Disease: Artery numbness? = present
Vascular Disease: Is there Artery swelling? = not usually
Vascular Disease: Artery = Raynaud's phenomena? Present
Vascular Disease: Artery = Trophic changes? Thin skin
Vascular Disease: Artery = valve competence = ? not applicable
Vascular Disease: Vein =temp? warm
Vascular Disease: Vein = Skin color? normal or discolored
Vascular Disease: Vein = pulse? normal
Vascular Disease: Vein = numbness? absent
Vascular Disease: Vein =swelling? Presen
Vascular Disease: Vein = Raynaud's phenomena? Absent
Vascular Disease: Vein =trophic changes? Stasis Dermatits
Vascular Disease: Vein = valve incompetence? present
What condition can cause ulcerations of the feet and ankles and must be ddx'ed from diabetes? Stasis dermatitis
Pain appears while walking and disappears after rest Intermittent claudication
Claudication: Pattern is not predictable, relief is positional related (seated with flexion) = which type? Neurologic Claudicaton
What are 2 causes of neurologic claudication? DJD and Spinal Canal Stenosis
Claudication: Pattern is predictable, relief always occurs with rest = Vascular Claudication
What are 2 causes of vascular claudication? Arteriosclerosis; Buerger's
Claudication time test = description and (+) patient walks at rate of 120 steps/minute for 1 minute; Positive is pain in calves.
Bicycle test: Patient pedals fast until painful, rest until painless. Repeat. Pain in calves is positive for vascular
Stoop test: Walking causes pain, stooping or flexion relieves it. Positive is pain in legs = neurogenic claudication.
Buerger's, aka = Thromboangitis Obliterans
Presents with intermittent claudication, non-healing ulcers, and gangrene. Associated with 20-40 y.o males who smoke excess tobacco = Buerger's/ Thromboangitis Obliterans
Seen in patients over 15 years old and dx is associated with Buerger's, Collagen dx, and scleroderma = Raynaud's
The phenomena is brought on by cold, stress, or emotion = Raynaud's
Use what ortho test for Raynaud's? Allen's test
presents in pt's over 20, with competent valves, dilated tortuous channels = varicose veins
Perthe's, aka Tourniquet test is for what? varicose veins
Explain Perthe's/Tourniquet test = Place a tourniquet around the upper thigh of the pt. and instruct them to exercise the leg for 60 seconds while noting prominence of variscocities.
What is a positive on Perthe's test = Variscosities distend and patient experiences pain
Presents with tenderness, edema, and pain in the lower extremities DVT
positive Homan's test with this leg condition = DVT
What test is this? = patient is supine with leg extended while examiner raises the leg off the table 45 degrees, dorsiflexes the foot, and squeezes the calf. (+) is pain in calve = Homan's test
symptoms of an embolism = difficulty breathing, chest pain on inspiration, and palpitations
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, aka = Complex regional pain syndrome
Small superficial dilated blood vessels; commonly seen on face, around nose, cheeks, and chin = Telengectasia
Pinpoint hemorrhage due to local trauma petechia
petechia can be due to this vitamin depravation = Vitamin C
Hematology: RBC = definition absolute number of circulating rbc's per unit of volume of blood
Hematology: RBC = normal value = 4-6 mill/cm cubed
Hematology: RBC increased = (primary and secondary causes) Primary: Polycythemia Vera; Secondary: High Altitude
Hematology: RBC decreased = Anemia
Hematology: Hb = definition = direct measure of WEIGHT of hemoglobin/unit volume of blood
Hematology: Hb = normal value = 15% (gm)
Hematology: Hb increased = (2) Dehydration or Polycythemia Vera
Hematology: Hb decreased = anemia
Hematology: Hct definition = Packed Cell Volume = Ratio of the volume of RBC's to that of the whole blood.
Hematology: Hct normal value = 42 +/- 5 percent
Hematology: Hct increased = (2) Dehydration or Polycythemia Vera
Hematology: Hct decreased = anemia
Hematology: MCV def = measures size of rbc
Hematology: MCV normal value= 90
Hematology: MCV increased= macrocytic anemia
Hematology: MCV decreased= microcytic anemia
Hematology: MCH def = measures weight of hb in average circulating RBC
Hematology: MCH normal value = 30
Hematology: MCH increased macrocytic anemia
Hematology: MCH decreased microcytic anemia
Hematology: MCHC def= Average. concentration of Hb in a given volume of packed cells
Hematology: MCHC normal value = 33
Hematology: MCHC increased = macrocytic anemia
Hematology: MCHC decreased = microcytic anemia
Hematology: Platelets normal value 200,000-350,000
Hematology: Platelets increased (3) Polycythemia, Trauma, Blood Loss
Hematology: Platelets decreased (3) Anemia, Extensive burns, thrombocytopenia
Hematology: WBC normal value 5,000-10,000
Hematology: WBC increased = Acute inflammation/infection, Leukemia (if over 50,000)
Hematology: WBC decreased = Overwhelming/chronic infection, Viral conditions
Hematology: Neutrophil normal percent 60
Hematology: Lymphocyte normal percent 30
Hematology: Monocyte normal percent 8
Hematology: Eosinophile normal percent 2
Hematology: Basophile normal percent 0
Neurtrophilia due to Bacterial infection (increase in)
Lymphocytosis due to Virus
Monocytosis due to Chronic infection
Eosinophilia due to Allergies, parasites
Basophilia due to Heparin production/histamine release
What tests are positive in excessive hemolytic anemia = Coomb's test, increased indirect bilirubin, increased reticulocytes
presents with nucleated RBC's. Caused by Hgb S = which type of anemia? sickle cell anemia
Thalassemia, aka's = (2) Cooley's Anemia; Mediterranean Anemia
presents with microcytic, target cells. Thalassemia
caused by an Rh+ father and an Rh- mother Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Which anemia presents as macrocytic, normochromic? Megaloblastic anemia
What test tests for pernicious anemia? Shilling test
what can megaloblastic anemia progress to? posterolateral sclerosis on the spinal cord (aka, combined systems disease)
Presents as normochromic, normocytic. panhypoplasia of the bone marrow, and decrease in all blood cells. = Aplastic anemia
Urinalysis: color = normal straw
Urinalysis:color = red blood = infection, cancer, or food dyes
Urinalysis: color =green biliverdin
Urinalysis: color = blue Diuretic therapy
Urinalysis: color=brown Bile pigments or blood (biliary duct obstruction, occult blood, homogentistic acid)
Urinalysis:color=black homogentisic Acid or Urobilin (ochronosis, hemolysis, bacteria)
Urinalysis: Appearance=Hazy or Cloudy Epithelial cells, WBC, RBC, crystals, sperm, microorganisms
Urinalysis:Appearance= Milky WBC, or Fat
Urinalysis:PH Normal is 4-8 (if less it is acidosis dabetics
Urinalysis:specific gravity normal values is 1.01-1.03 (this shows hw much water compared to solutes
Urinalysis:specify gravity increases with bacterial infection, diabetes mellitus and kidney abnormalities
Urinalysis:Glucose=normal none detected. renal threshold is >180mg%
Urinalysis: Glucose inceases with Diabetes melitus, shock, head injury, pancreatic disease, renal tubular disease
Urinalysis:ketones=normal none detected
Urinalysis:ketones=increases with starvation, DM, weight loss diets, inadequate carbohydrates intake
Urinalysis:protein=normal none detected
Urinalysis:protein increases with kidney disorders, toxemia of pregnacy, DM, Muliple myeloma
Urinalysis:urobilinogen=normal 1-1EL unit/mL
Urinalysis: urobilinogen increases with hemolytic disease or hepatic disease
Urinalysis:urobilinogen decrease with biliary obstruction
Urinalysis:bilirubin=normal none detected
Urinalysis:bilirubin= increases with hepatic dz or biliary obstruction
Urinalysis:blood = normal none detected
Urinalysis:blood=increases with tumor, trauma, kidney function, kidney stones, hypertension, bleeding disorder.
Urinalysis:casts=hyaline normal
Urinalysis:casts=Epithelial tubular damage
Urinalysis:casts=RBC Glomerulonephritis
Urinalysis:casts=WBC Pyelonephritis
Urinalysis:casts= waxy renal failure, nephrosis
laboratory: Acid Phosphatase (pap) increases: prostatic carcinoma, metastatic disease
laboratory:Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Reversed: Multiple Myeloma
laboratory:Albumin increase: dehydration
laboratory: albumin decrease: nephrosis
laboratory: Alkaline Phosphate increases: osteoblastic leison, hepatic disease, HPT
laboratory:Amylase Increased:Acute pancreatitis
laboratory:Creatinine increases:kidney disease, hypovolemic shock
laboratory:creatinine decreased: muscular dystrophies
laboratory: fluorescent Treponema Antibody (FTA) present of syphilis
laboratory:Human Leukocyte Antigen Locus (HLA) B27 (HLA PEAR) ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS, REITER'S PA, Enteropathic
laboratory:Human chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) INCREASED Hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma
laboratory:Human chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) DECREASED: ECTOPIC pregnancy, threatened abortion
Laboratory: Immunolectrophoresis M-spike indicated multiple myeoma
Laboratory:potassium increased: addison's disease, renal failure
Laboratory: Potassium decreased:chronic renal disease, insulin, diuretics
Laboratory:protein increased:MM, Diabetic acidosis
Laboratory:protein decrease:liver disease, kidney syndromes
Laboratory: RA Latex +: RA, SLE, TB, Cancer, Sjogren's still's disease
Laboratory: uric acid (> 45% increased: gout, renal failure
Special test: Aspiration Gout, Bacterial Arthritis
Special test:Balloon Angioplasty obstructive atherosclerosis
Special test: Biopsy (malig vs benign) tumor (hodgkin's)
Special test: EMG (Electromyography) Muscle atrophy
Special test: PET (Positron emission computed tomography) Bone and soft tissue, tumor, heart, and brain
Increased phosphorus = (3) acromegaly, kidney dx, or hypervitaminosis D
Decreased phosphorus = (3) rickets, hypovitaminosis D, hyperparathyroidism
What are CT scans used for = trauma, infection, vascular, neoplastic, arthritic/metabolic disorders
What are biopsy's good for? distinguishing benign from malignant
Laprascopy indicates = abdominal tumor
Mantoux test indicates= TB (TINE test is also for TB)
MRIs are good for indicating = spinal tumor
SPECT test is for = musculoskeletal system, heart, brain, and abdomen
PER scan is for = bone, soft tissue, tumor, heart, and brain
Spirometer indicates = COPD
Sputum culture indicates= Strep, TB
Stress test is done for = (3) Atherosclerosis, angina, and MI
Ultrasound is used for = (3) Aneurysm, Organs, Pregnancy, and acute appendicitis
Created by: bglasman
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