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Organ Histology E1

Organ Histology Palmer Exam 1

what are the general functions of epithelium 1)provides a barrier 2)secretion 3)absorption
what are the specialized functions of epithelium 1)transport molecules across epi. 2)prevent transport of material across epi. 3)sensory (ie taste buds)
what are the basic characteristics of epithelium 1)cells are adjacent to each other 2)complete or partial basement membrane 3)avascular, obtain nutrients by diffusion 4)associated w/ vascular CT 5)held together by cell junctions
what are the 2 parts of the complete basement membrane 1)basal lamina 2)reticular lamina
what is the basal lamina produced by epithelium
what is the reticular lamina produced by connective tissue fibroblast
what does the partial basement membrane contain basal lamina only
what are the functions of the basement membrane 1)provides a surface for epithelial cell attachment 2)limit stretch (protection) 3)filters
what are the functions of the vascular connective tissue 1)provides nutrition 2)source of defensive cells
what are the 4 types of cell junctions 1)zonula occludens 2)zonula adherins 3)macula adherins 4)gap junctions
what is the other name for zonula occludens tight junction
what is the characteristic of zonula occludens sharing of intrinsic membrane proteins between 2 cells
what are the 2 functions of zonula occludens 1)strong attachment 2)prevents passage of material between cells
what is the other name for zonula adherins adhesion belt
zonula adherins is the area consisting of 1)linkage proteins between 2 cells 2)marginal bands from cytoskeleton attaching to cell membrane
what are the 2 functions of the zonula adherins 1)weak attachment 2)provides structural cell stability
what is the other name for macula adherins desmosomes
what is the function of macula adherins strong attachment
what is the other name for gap junctions connexon
what are the characteristics of gap junctions 6 proteins in a cylinder
what are the 2 functions of gap junctions 1)strong attachment 2)transport of materials
junctional complex consists of what layers 1)zonula occludens 2)zonula adherins 3)macula adherins
what are junctions that hold the epithelium to the basement membrane and the connective tissue 1)hemidesmosomes 2)focal point contacts
epithelium that is a single cell thick simple epithelium
where is simple squamous epithelium located 1)lung 2)parietal layer of the bowman's capsule in the kidney 3)serosa on the outside of organs
what are the 2 functions of simple squamous epithelium 1)provide a barrier 2)living filter
single layer of cube shaped epithelium simple cuboidal
where are simple cuboidal epithelium located 1)exocrine ducts 2)thyroid follicular cells 3)kidney tubules
what are the 3 functions of simple cuboidal epithelium 1)provide a barrier 2)absorption 3)secretion
single layer of epithelium that have height simple columnar
where are simple columnar epithelium located 1)stomach 2)small intestine 3)gall bladder 4)larger exocrine ducts
what are the 3 functions of simple columnar cells 1)provide a barrier 2)absorption 3)secretion
ciliated pseudostratified epithelium is also known as what respiratory epithelium
where is ciliated pseudostratified epithelium located 1)trachea 2)respiratory region of nasal cavity 3)bronchi
what are the 3 cell types associated with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium 1)sustentacular cells 2)goblet cells 3)basal cells
columnar cells that contain cilia sustentacular cells
how are cilia anchored to sustentacular cells anchored in the apex of the cell by basal bodies
what is the function of sustentacular cells move mucus
modified columnar cells, in the ciliated pseudostratified epithelium goblet cells
what is the function of the goblet cells produce mucus
short pyramidal shaped cell that does not reach the surface of ciliated pseudostratified epithelium basal cells
what is the function of basal cells to be stem cell for respiratory epithelium
finger-like projections at the apical surface on some epithelial cells microvilli
microvilli are also known as brush border or striated border
what is the function of microvilli 1)increase surface area 2)increase absorption
where are microvilli located 1)kidney tubule cells 2)small intestines
extremely long microvilli, not related to true cilia stereocilia
what is the function of stereocilia increase surface area
where is stereocilia located 1)cochlear hair cells 2)epididymis
thin apical hair-like extensions of the cytoskeleton cilia
what is the function of cilia move something over a surface
what are the 2 points about cells with cilia 1)lots of mitochondria(lots of energy needed) 2)no secretion or absorption(b/c basal bodies block the free surface)
where are cilia located 1)trachea 2)fallopian tube
surface layer of glycoproteins and carbohydrates that covers some epithelium glycocalyx
what are glycocalyx produced by epithelial cells
what are the 2 functions of glycocalyx 1)provide a protective surface 2)cell recognition
where are glycocalyx located 1)stomach 2)small intestine
epithelium that is 2 or more cell layers thick stratified epithelium
multiple layers of cells that tend to flatten out from basal layer to superficial layer, superficial layer of cells are flat and alive stratified squamous
where is stratified squamous located 1)esophagus 2)oral cavity 3)tongue 4)vagina
what is the function of stratified squamous epithelium protection from abrasion
what are the problems/limitations of stratified squamous epithelium 1)no protection from drying 2)limited thickness
multiple layers of cells that also tend to flatten from basal layer to superficial layer of cells, superficial layer is covered by an added non-living layer of keratin keratinized stratified squamous
where is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium located skin
what is the function of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium protection in a dry environment
what are the layers in epithelium of the skin 1)stratum basale 2)stratum spinosum 3)stratum granulosum 4)stratum lucidum 5)stratum corneum
1-2 layers of keratinocytes which are mitotic and closest to the dermis stratum basale
multiple layers of "spiny shaped" keratinocytes that produce lipids and keratohyalin vacuoles, thickness of this layer can vary stratum spinosum
uppermost 1-2 layers of flattened living keratinocytes that contain flattened, condensed keratohyalin vacuoles stratum granulosum
thin layer of recently dead or dying keratinocytes present only in thick skin stratum lucidum
layer of dead cells, keratin and lipids stratum corneum
what are the 3 functions of stratum corneum 1)prevent H2O loss 2)protects against abrasion 3)protects against microbes
cells that protect against UV radiation melanocytes
where are melanocytes found stratum basale
how do melanocytes work produce melanosome which make melanin, melanosomes pinch off and are taken in by surrounding keratinocytes
skin color is greatly influenced by what 1)size of melanosomes 2)number of melanosomes 3)placement of the pigment in the cell
recognize external foreign antigens langerhans cells
where are langerhans cells found 1)stratum spinosum (primary) 2)stratified squamos 3)epithelium(esophagus)
what provides touch receptors merkel cells
where are merkel cells found stratum basale
melanocyte numbers _______ when exposed to UV light repeatedly increase
langerhans cells _________ with repeated UV exposure decrease
where is stratified cuboidal epithelium found larger ducts in sweat glands and salivary glands
what is the function of stratified cuboidal epithelium increase protection
where is stratified columnar epithelium found 1)large ducts in pancreas 2)parts of male urethra 3)conjunctiva of the eye
what are the functions of stratified columnar epithelium 1)increase protection 2)provide transition between epithelium types
where is transitional(urinary) epithelium found urinary tract
what is the function of transitional epithelium 1)protection 2)to stretch
what are specializations in transitional epithelium 1)thin fenestrated basement membrane 2)large, rounded, superficial 3)well developed zonula occludens between cells
why is a well developed zonula occludens between cells important in transitional epithelium 1)thin basement membrane 2)prevents diffusion of waste through epithelium
what is an unusual superficial cell feature in transitional epithelium binucleate cells
why do transitional epithelium cells get more oxygen 1)fenestrated basement membrane 2)shorter diffusion distance
what are 2 subcategories of epithelial glands exocrine and endocrine
method of secretion by which the product is released into a duct or directly onto an epithelial surface exocrine secretion
components directly involved with the primary function (biceps-->skeletal muscle cells) parenchyma
supportive components (structural/metabolic), biceps-->nerves, blood vessels, connective tissue stroma
what are the 3 subclassifications of exocrine secretion 1)morphology 2)method of secretion 3)product secreted
method classifies the gland according to the shape of secretory units and the ducts arrangement (compound branched tubular gland) morphology
tubular vs acinar(alveolar) secretory units
unbranched vs. branched duct arrangement
what are the 3 methods of secretion 1)merocrine(eccrine) 2)holocrine 3)apocrine
what are examples of merocrine(eccrine) secretion 1)goblet cell 2)salivary glands 3)pancreas 4)sweat glands
what are the important facts about merocrine(eccrine) secretion 1)loses exocybils 2)no cell damage 3)no cell membrane or cytoplasm is part of the secretory product 4)most common method of secretion
what are examples of holocrine secretion 1)sebaceous glands 2)tarsal(meibomian) glands of eyeball
what are the important facts about holocrine secretion 1)cell matures and dies 2)secretory product=intact vacuoles and cell "parts" 3)odor is associated with this process because bacteria is attracted to it
what are examples of apocrine secretion 1)lactating mammary glands 2)sweat glands in adults (pubic area, axilla) 3)ceruminous glands in external auditory canal (wax) 4)ciliary glands in eyelid
what are important facts about apocrine secretion 1)minimal cell damage 2)secretory product=intact vacuoles and cell membrane and cytoplasm 3)associated with odor
smallest division of a gland, a group of cells surrounding a cavity acinus
small group of serous cells attached to a mucus acinus serous demilune
cells with epithelial origin that are contractile, cells wrap around the acini and sometimes the ducts myoepithelial cells
where are myoepithelial cells found 1)salivary and sweat glands 2)lacrimal glands 3)lactating mammary glands
what is the function of myoepithelial cells aid secretion
serous glands produce proteins
where are serous glands found 1)pancreas 2)parotid gland 3)chief cells in stomach
what are characteristics of serous glands 1)cells are trapezoid 2)nucleus is round and noticeable 3)cells pick up stain
mucus glands produce mucus
what are examples of mucus glands 1)goblet cells 2)mucus cells in stomach 3)minor salivary glands in tongue and palate
what are characteristics of mucus glands 1)cells are trapezoid 2)cells stain lighter 3)nuclei are often flat and peripheral
mixed glands produce serous and mucus
what are examples of mixed glands sublingual and submandibular salivary glands
what are characteristics of mixed glands serous demilunes possible
how is exocrine regulation controlled 1)myoepithelial cells (ANS fiber to each cell) 2)hormonal 3)blood supply (increase blood-->increase O2-->increase secretion)
secretory product released into nearby connective tissue for vascular dispersal to target cells/organs endocrine secretion
what are the subtypes of endocrine secretion 1)paracrine secretion 2)autocrine secretion
signaling cell is close to target cell so the hormone does not enter the blood paracrine secretion
signaling cell is its own target autocrine secretion
what regulates endocrine secretion 1)hormonal (primary) 2)ANS
1)patchy skin lesions 2)accelerated keratinocyte life cycle ~1 week 3)cells accumulate in stratum corneum 4)inflammation in dermal papillae 5)cyclic and etiology is unknown psoriasis vulgaris
1)spots with extra pigment, especially in fair skin 2)increase in melanin w/out an increase in melanocyte numbers 3)tend to fade in winter and darken in sun exposure freckles
1)patches which lack melanocytes 2)unknown cause but associated with systemic disease 3)ie hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, addison's disease vitiligo
discoloration due to proliferation of melanocytes moles (naevi)
1)melanocytes become mitotically active and invade dermis 2)very invasive and metastatic 3)treatment: surgery and chemo malignant melanoma
what are the functions of connective tissue 1)provide structural support 2)medium for exchange 3)defense/protection 4)storage of fat 4)stro
what are the characteristics of connective tissue 1)most derived from mesenchyme tissue 2)support cells separated by a matrix 3)support cells produce matrix components 4)cells adhere to matrix components instead of other cells
what are examples of sulfated glycosaminoglycans 1)keratin sulfate 2)chondroitin sulfate 3)heparin sulfate 4)dermatin sulfate
what are some points of interest for sulfated glycosaminoglycans 1)have covalent bonding sits-bond to other sulfated GAG's and proteins 2)no affinity for H2O 3)will not support inflammation
what are some examples of non-sulfated glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid
what are characteristics of non-sulfated glycosaminoglycans 1)do not bond with other glycosaminoglycans 2)have an affinity for H2O-weak electrostatic bond
a tissue with a high hyaluronic acid concentration will 1)have higher H2O content 2)have a H2O content that can change 3)supports inflammation
what are positive aspects of inflammation 1)increase fluidity-promotes cell movement 2)increase number of defensive cells
what are negative aspects of inflammation swelling can damage blood vessels, nerves and cells
excessive fluid remaining in the interstitial spaces edema
what is the most common connective tissue protein collagen
type I collagen accounts for ___ of the total body collagen ~90%
collagen I is known for its great tensile strength but will not stretch only gives up ~4%
what are the affects of aging on collagen 1)fiber production slows with age 2)incorrect cross-linking when collagen I fiber is produced = weaker fiber
what vitamin is necessary for the proper cross-linking within the collagen I fiber vitamin C
not enough vitamin C will cause 1)weakly cross-linked fibers 2)fibers breakdown more rapidly 3)scurvy
1)composed of elastin and microfibrils 2)can stretch 150% of its resting length 3)important in blood vessels and lungs 4)commonly produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells 5)simpler fiber than collagen I elastic
what are the effects of aging on elastic fibers increase age leads to decrease number of elastic fibers
describe marfan's syndrome 1)results from defective fibrillia 2)genetic based disease
1)same as collagen III 2)easy to produce 3)last ~3 days 4)no known serious pathologies associated reticular fibers
what is the 1st fiber produced during wound healing reticular
fibroblasts are usually derived from mesenchyme cells
what are examples of fibroblasts 1)adipocytes 2)chondrocytes, during fibrocartilage formation 3)osteoblasts, certain pathologies
what are the structural functions of fibroblasts 1)produce and maintain matrix 2)healing
what are the functions of fibroblasts when healing 1)produce growth factors and other cytokines 2)scar formation
what are the steps in scar formation for fibroblasts I)scars begin as granulation tissue and reticular fibers II)dense irregular CT III)mature scars are almost avascular and contain only mature fibroblasts IV)commonly occurs in: tendons, lig., epi, cartilage V)scar is only 70% as strong as original
what are the functions of fibroblasts in defense 1)produce cytokines and enzymes(collagenase & elastase) 2)phagocytize
mature, less active fibroblast fibrocyte
fibrocytes can produce hyaleuronic acid and other ground substances and reticular fibers
fibrocytes cannot make new collagen I fibers or elastic fibers
what is the function of fibrocytes maintain tissue
pssess features of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells myofibroblast
what are the functions of myofibroblasts 1)wound closure 2)tooth eruption
what are adipocytes derived from mesenchyme cells
what is the function of aadipocytes in lipid storage 1)energy source 2)cushion organs 3)thermoregulation
what are the functions of adipocytes 1)lipid storage 2)produce leptin
where are plasma cells located 1)connective tissue 2)lymphatic tissues/organs
what is the function of plasma cells 1)produce immunoglobins
IgG= macrophages and neutorphils
IgM= B cells
IgE= mast cells and basophils
IgD= B cells
IgA= secretory antibody associated with epithelium
large cells with an indented or kidney bean shaped nucleus, often contain residual bodies in their cytoplasm macrophages
what are macrophages derived from monocytes
macrophages are apart of mononuclear phagocyte system (reticuloendothelial system)
examples of macrophages 1)kupffer cells 2)alveolar macrophages 3)monocytes 4)microglia 5)langerhans cells 6)osteoclasts
what are the functions of macrophages 1)phagocytosis 2)act as an antigen presenting cell 3)create foreign body giant cells 4)release cytokines and other products
what are the characteristics of phagocytosis 1)debris 2)microorganisms
what is the characteristic of APC probably separate population of cells
what is the characteristics of creating a giant cell 1)fusion of ~30-40 macrophages 2)form in response to: -sizeable foreign object(sliver) -certain pathogens(syphilis)
Created by: ellerjason12
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