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PNS exam 1

PNS Palmer exam 1

nervous tissue consists of what 2 main cell types 1)neurons 2)neuroglia
what is the size of a neuron ~10 microns
what is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system specialized for rapid communication neurons
neurons communicate with each other at the points of contact between neurons called synapses
neuroglia are approximately ____ times as abundant as neurons 5
what is the general functions of the neuroglia 1)support 2)insulate 3)nourishment for neurons
what are types of neuroglia 1)oligodendroglia 2)astrocytes 3)ependymal cells 4)microglia
neurolemma is also known as schwann cells
collection of nerve cell bodies in the cns is called cranial nucleus
a bundle of nerve fibers connecting neighboring or distant nuclei of the cns is a tract
the nerve cell bodies lie within in the gray matter
the fiber tract system forms the white matter
what are the 3 layers of the meninges 1)pia 2)arachnoid 3)dura
the neurolemma of myelinated nerve fibers consists of neurolemma cells specific to an individual axon, organized into a continuous series of enwrapping cells that form myelin
the neurolemma of unmyelinated nerve fibersare composed of cells that do not make up a myelin sheath and multiple axons are separately embedded within the cytoplasm
a peripheral nerve consists of 1)fascicles 2)connective tissue 3)blood vessels (vasa nervorum)
connective tissue that immediately surrounds the neurolemma cell and axon endoneurium
layer of dense connective tissue that encloses the nerve fibers surrounded by the endoneurium, providing a barrier against penetration of foreign substances perineurium
thick connective tissue sheath that surrounds and encloses a bundle of fascicles forming the outermost covering of the nerve epineurium
collection of nerve cell bodies outside the cns ganglion
which fibers convey neural impulses to the cns from the sense organs and from sensory receptors afferent (sensory)
which fibers convey neural impulses from the cns to muscles and glands efferent
how many cranial nerves arise from the brain 11
which cranial nerve does not arise from the brain cranial nerve XI
spinal nerves arise from spinal cord as rootlets
the ventral root consists of what type of fibers efferent (motor)
the dorsal root consists of what type of fibers afferent (sensory)
the unilateral area of skin innervated by the fibers of a single spinal nerve is called a dermatome
the unilateral muscle mass receiving innervations from the fibers conveyed by a single spinal nerve is a myotome
what are the 2 types of somatic fibers 1)general sensory fibers 2)somatic motor/general somatic efferent fibers
afferent fibers that transmit sensations from the body to the CNS general sensory/general somatic fibers
exteroceptive sensations from the skin (pain,temp,touch,pressure) or pain and proprioceptive sensations from the muscles, tendons and joints are what kind of somatic fibers general sensory fibers
what kind of sensations are usually subconscious, provide info regarding joint position and the tension of tendons and muscles, combined with vestibular apparatus of the internal ear, result in awareness of the orientation of the body proprioceptive sensation
what fibers transmit impulses to skeletal (voluntary) muscles somatic motor/general somatic efferent fibers
what fibers transmit pain or subconscious visceral reflex sensations concerning distension, blood gas and blood pressure levels from hollow organs and blood vessels to the cns visceral sensory/general visceral afferent fibers
fibers that transmit impulses to smooth(involuntary) muscle and glandular tissue, presynaptic and postsynaptic fibers work together to conduct impulses from the cns to smooth muscle or glands visceral motor/general visceral efferent fibers
both types of sensory, visceral and general sensory are processes of what type of neurons pseudo-unipolar
motor fibers of the peripheral nerves are axons of what type of neurons multipolar
cell bodies of somatic motor and presynaptic visceral motor neurons are located in what matter of the spinal cord gray matter
cell bodies of postsynaptic motor neurons are located outside the cns in what ganglia autonomic
the olfactory nerve is what type of nerve sensory
primary olfactory neurons are located where olfactory mucosa (bowman's membrane)
the optic nerve is what type of nerve sensory
the optic nerve arises from what layer of the retina ganglionic layer
the optic nerve forms the optic chiasma and then optic tracts to reach what the lateral geniculate body (metathalamus)
the oculomotor nerve is what type of nerve motor with parasympathetic
the apparent origin of the oculomotor nerve is in the interpeduncular fossa
the oculomotor nerve supplies _____ somatic muscles of the extrinsic eye muscles and ____ smooth muscles of the eye as the parasympathetic nerve 5, 2
the trochlear nerve is what type of nerve motor
what is the smallest cranial nerve trochlear nerve
what is the apparent origin of the trochlear nerve dorsal side of the midbrain
the trochlear nerve innervates what muscle of the eye superior oblique
the trigeminal nerve is what type of nerve mixed
what is the largest cranial nerve trigeminal
what is the apparent origin of the trigeminal nerve side of the pons
what are the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve 1)ophthalmic 2)maxillary 3)mandibular
what kind of fibers of the trigeminal nerve are most cutaneous and mucous membranes & internal structures of the face sensory fibers
what fibers of the trigeminal innervate the primary muscles of mastication, swallowing(deglutition), middle ear muscle & soft palate muscle motor fibers
the abducens nerve is what kind of nerve motor
what does the abducens nerve innervate lateral rectus
what is the apparent origin of the abducens nerve anterosuperial aspect of the medulla oblongata or anterior inferior pontine sulcus
the facial nerve is what kind of nerve mixed with parasympathetic fibers
what is the apparent origin of the facial nerve sulcus between the olive and the restiform(lateral bundle of inferior cerebellar peduncle)
what division of the facial nerve receives info from taste buds of the anterior 2/3s of the tongue and mucous membrane sensory divison (nervous intermedius)
the motor division of the facial nerve innervates the facial, scalp & external ear muscles
the parasympathetic nerve of the facial nerve innervates mucous glands of the nose and mouth, lacrimal gland & 2 small salivary glands
the vestibulocochlear nerve is what kind of nerve sensory
what is the apparent origin of the vestibulocochlear nerve immediately lateral side to the facial nerve between the olive and restiform body
where does the cochlear nerve arise from cochlear (hair) cells of hearing in the inner ear
the vestibular nerve arises from the vestibule of the inner ear for equilibrium
the glossopharyngeal nerve is what kind of nerve mixed with parasympathetic nerve
what is the apparent origin of the glossopharyngeal nerve immediately caudal to the vestibulocochlear nerve between the olive and restiform body
the sensory fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve are for general sensation from the pharynx & posterior 1/3 of the tongue mucous membrane
the sensory fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve for taste are from the taste buds of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
what is the somatic innervation of the glossopharyngeal nerve stylopharyngeus
the parasympathetic secretomotor fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve innervate the parotid gland & smaller glands in the back of the oral cavity
the vagus nerve is what kind of nerve mixed with parasympathetic nerve
parasympathetic nerves of the vagus innervate most of the thoracic and abdominal organs up to the left colic(splenic) flexure
somatic sensory fibers from the vagus are from the same visceral organs
somatic motor fibers of the vagus innervate palatal, pharyngeal, & laryngeal muscles
Created by: ellerjason12
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