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Histo 1 test 2

NWHSU Histo 1 E2

Connective tissue is made up of... Cells + Matrix
Matrix consists of.. Fibers + Ground substance
Most common cells in CT Fibroblasts which are found in the matrix
Ground substance is the diffusion medium of CT and is made up of... A sugary protein---> GAG's and PG's (glycosominoglycones and protoglycans)
Ground substance has a very high affinity for ... Water
The more sulfated GAG's in the ground substance the more.. Rigid the tissue becomes--> SO4 hangs on to water tightly and water provides the diffusion medium
The most common fiber in CT is Collagen
Type 1 Collagen: Most common type, found in Skin, dermis, tendons, bone, ligaments fascia, fibrous cartilage etc. DOESNT BRANCH & THICKER
Type II Collagen: Hyaline and elastic cartilage
Type III Collagen: Reticular Fiber---> all characteristics of collagen but more, BRANCHING & THINNER, blood vessels, bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, smooth muscle nerves, lung etc
Type 4 Collagen: Non-fibrous collagen of the basal lamina, basement membranes, external lamina
Parathyroid increases blood _________ lvls by increasing osteoclastic activity Blood calcium lvls
What types of tissue come from the Msenchyme? Embryonic tissue/cells, All myocardium, smooth muscle, endothelium, mesothelium, synovial bursas, blood etc
Does mesenchyme have leptochromatic or pachychromatic nucleus? Leptochromatic Nucleus
Most Common CT is? Loost CT-----> 50/50 cell to matrix ratio
Does loose CT contain blood vessels? Yes! Highly vascular
The majority cell in loose CT is the ... Fibroblast
Where to fibroblasts come from? The Mesenchyme
Can fibroblasts make a whole collagen molecule? No. They synthesize the components of all parts of the matrix, but do not make the whole collagen fiber
What is the other cell readily found in loose CT that we talked about in class? Macrophage
Where do macrophages come from? The mesenchyme!! They start as hematopoietic stem cells--->to monocytes---->to macrophages
What are some primary functions of macrophages? 1. Phagocytosis, 2. Recycling of iron from Hb catabolism, 3. Interferons, 4. Interleukins, 5. Clotting factor
Do macrophages originate in loose CT? No, they are immigrant phagocytic cells in the CT
What is produced by the thyroid gland? Calcitonin
What increases blood calcium lvls? Parathyroid hormone
Calcitonin and parathyroid both regulate what in the blood? calcium lvls
Osteoblasts are activated via ... Calcitonin
Calcitonin is Vit______ dependent Vitamin D
Calcitonin and parathyroid are both produced by what kind of gland? Endocrine gland
Neurogenic inflammation mechanism is the most predominent T or F? T
How does neurogenic inflammation work? Irritator--->nociceptor (c-fiber)--->substance P--->inflammatory response
what does substance P release? Arachadonic acid and heparin (fast response)
Dense irregular CT is made up of what? Collagen fibers and fibroblasts
Does dense irregular CT have more vasculature then Loose CT? No! it has less
Examples of dense irregular CT.. Fascia, dermis, epimysium, perimysium
Dense irregular CT has the most cells out of the CT proper group T or F? False! it has the least ammount of cells and almost no vasculature compared to loose CT
What is cross fiber friction? How you loosen muscle fibers if too tight
How long does it take to make a collagen fiber/ 72 hours
Plasma comprises what % of the blood? 55%
Plasma makes up 55% of the blood.. Out of that 55% how much is water? 90%
Where is albumin produced/ Liver
What does albumin do? 1. Maintains colloid osmotic pressure 2. Binds and transports fatty acids from adipose cells 3. Important free radical scavenger 4. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic eeffect
What are the three globulin groups in the plasma? Alpha, Beta, Gamma
Alpha and beta globulins function as.. Transport molecules, clotting factors and inactive precursor molecules, produced by the liver
What is another name for gamma globulins? Alpha-1 & alpha-2
alpha-2 consists of several substances. What substance helps carry heme or hemoglobin to cells where they can be broken down? Haptoglobin
alpha-1 incules.. Antitrypsin and thyroxin binding globulin
alpha-2 also has a substance that carries what vitamin to the liver? Vit D
what are two other substances alpha-2 contains? HDL---> to liver for excretion by gallbladder, Angiotensinogen--->activated in the kidney to regulate Na+reuptake
Created by: Jtanko23