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Alkane reactions

Organic Chem MCAT

QuestionAnswer
What are the criteras for the boiling point? Molecular Weight and Chain length (branched decreases boiling point), and intermolecular forces
What are the criterias for melting point? Polarity and Symmetry (branched decreases melting point)
What are the products of the combustion of an alkene? Carbon dioxide, water and heat
What is the most common alkane reaction? Halogenation (hydrogens are replaced with a halogen)
What is the most important factor that determines the occurence of an alkane reaction? Stability of the carbocation (Tertiary>secondary>primary)
What is the first category of reactions of Alkanes (alkyl halides)? Nucelophilic substitution (SN1 AND SN2)
What are nucelophiles? Electron rich species that attract positively charged nucleus (exactly similar to lewis bases)
What are electrophiles? Electron deficient species that love electrons
What features distingushes two nucelophiles? If the nucelophiles have the same attacking atom, then the nuccleophilicity corresponds to basicity
What are protic solvents? Solvents such as water and alcohol where larger atoms tend to be better nucleophiles
What are aprotic solvents? Solvents without protons where nucelophilicity correspond to basicity.
What are leaving groups? Good leaving groups are weak bases such as larger anions or neutral species (as we go down the periodic table, size of the molecule increases)
What is a SN1 reaction? Dissociation of a molecule in to a carbocation following a good leaving group, and then the combination of a carbocation with a nucleophile
What is the rate of a SN1 reaction? The formation of the carbocation is the rate limiting step. And, hence it is a first order reaction (rate does not depend on the nucelophile)
What are the characteristics of a SN1 reaction? Highly substituted alkyl halides, polar protic solvents (stabilizes the intermediate state), and good leaving group)
What is a SN2 reaction? WHn carbocation formation is impossible, then a nucelophile pushes its way in to the compund forming a pentacoordinate system, and displaces the leaving group in one step.
What are the characteristics of a SN2 reaction? Strong nucleophile, and sterically unhindered substrate (primary or secondary substrates)
What is the rate of a SN2 reaction?? Since the reaction depends on the concentrations of both the nucelophile and the leaving group, it is second order
What are the sterochemistry of substitution reactions? In SN1 reactions, the sterochemistry of the products is lost as it becomes a racemic mixture while in SN2, if both the leaving group and the nucelophile have the same priority, then there is an inversion, otherwise not.
What are the three types of reactions that an alkane undergo? Halogenation (Only with chlorine and bromine), Combustion and Pyrolysis (cracking with heat)
Created by: prijuvarghese
 

 



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