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His. terms; Test 4
|was Russia wanting to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire.
|Crimean War (1853-1856)
|"reorganization" period of the Ottoman Empire
|group of reformist officers; decided to ally the empire with the Central Powers.
|prime minister of Piedmont
|NW Italy; went to war with Austria
|Romantic Republican who campaigned for Italian unification; accepted Piedmont troops
|when Victor Emmanuel II was declared king of Italy
|under Bismark's leadership and with the strong support of its royal house, Prussia used diplomatic/military means to unify Germany.
|made himself king of Prussia
|Prussian pragmatist prime minister; put more trust in power and action than in ideas.
|led to the decisive defeat of Austria; it established Prussia as the only major power among the German states.
|Austro-Prussian War: Seven Weeks' War
|Prussia coaxed France into declaring war; France lost
|Franco-Prussian War, (1870-1871)
|municipal government of France; intended to administer Paris separately from the rest of France.
|National Assembly backed into a republican form of government against its will;
|greatest trauma of the 3rd Republic; found a Frenchman guilty of passing secret info to the Germans; it wasn't true but by then Dreyfus had been exiled.
|wrote a newpaper article contending the whole Dreyfus Affair
|the newpaper article written by Zola
|emperor of Hapsburg
|created a federation among the states and provinces of the Hapsburg Empire.
|also called the Compromise of 1867; transformed the Hapsburg Empire into a dual monarchy known as Austria-Hungary.
|Russian tzar; made reforms a big deal
|Alexander II abolished slavery in Russia
|abolition of serfdom in Russia, 1861
|Russian tzar; not very good for Russia; mainly wanted to turn back his father's reforms
|amendments accepted by the House of Commons; one being expansion of who could vote; it was a step toward democracy for Britain
|Second Reform Act, 1867
|led the British House of Commons
|new prime minister of Great Britain
|established voting by secret ballot in Great Britain
|Ballot Act of 1872
|government of a country or locality by its own citizens.
|Irish Question: home rule
|leader of the Irish movement for a just land settlement and for home rule.
|curbed the power of the Lords in Great Britain
|House of Lords Act of 1911
|French; his belief was positivism (all knowledge is common to physical sciences).
|wrote "On the Origin of Species" in 1859*; natural selection
|Darwin's theory that only the fittest species would survive
|British; most famous advocate of evolution; Social Darwinism
|said best(fittest)society would survive
|agreed with Darwinism, but NOT social Darwinism
|attacked Christianity; wrote "The Life of Jesus":Bible doesn't show historical evidence of Jesus
|attacked Christianity by saying that the Earth is much older than Biblical records contend.
|"cultural struggle"; church-state conflict started by Bismark in Germany; in response to perceived threat by Roman Catholic Church
|called together the Frist Vatican Council in 1869**;believed in papal infallibility (pope is always right in faith and morals)
|Rerum Novarum: defended private prop.,religious edu., and marriage laws. Was big on protection for workers
|explained the course of radiation
|discovered the radium; awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry
|quantum theory of energy
|papers on relativity: time and space are a combined continuum.
|presenting life as it is.
|examine what makes life as it is; portray w/o sentimentality.
|reshape life as you want it; criticize morality and middle class.
|focus on social life and activities of middle and lower classes.
|focus on form and structure to focus on artistic traditions.
|Cezanne, van Gogh
|reduces things to geometric shapes
|German philosopher; wanted to probe sources in human life.
|Austrian Jewish psychoanalysis founder; id, superego,and ego.
|drives for sexual gratification or pleasure.
|moral imperatives that culture/society impose on personality.
|mediates b/t impulsive id and self-denying superego.
|belief that some people are more superior than others.
|French diplomat; thought the white Aryan race had intermarried with inferior races.
|Englishman; viewed Jews as a major enemy of Europeans.
|Herzl's belief that Jews should have their own homeland.