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Cardiovasc Phys

QuestionAnswer
Where is sa node located? superior posterolateral wall of rt atrium
what allows for spontaneous depolarization of the sa node? leaky na+ and ca++ channels, combined with a lower resting mem potential (-55 - -60)
what is the internodal pathway? conducting pathways between the sa node and av node
where is the av node located? lower end of the rt atrium
where is there a delay in tramission between the sa node and av node? so that the atria can empty into the ventricles
how is the av node depolarized? by impulse from sa node
What is the pathway of the budle of his//atrioventricular bundle? Beings @ the AV node and divides to form the rt and lft bundle branches, runs within the interventricular septum
What does the bundle of his//atriventricular bundle cause? conduction in the ventricles
What is the fastest conductor of the heart? purkinje fibers
What does the bundle of his terminate as? purkinje fibers
What does an enlarged p wave indicate? atrial enlargement
What is the phase of contraction? systole
what is the phase of relaxation? diastole
What wave is atrial deoplarization? p-wave
what wave is ventricular depolarization? qrs
What does an enlarged Q wave indicate? myocardial infarction
What does an enlarged R wave indicate? ventricular enlargement
How long does the qrs wave last? .06 seconds
What wave shows ventricular repolarization? T wave
What masks atrial repolarization wave? and what is the name? by the qrs wave, called DICROTIC NOTCH
What is the definition of a cardiac cycle? Systole and diastole of both artira and systole and diastole of both ventricles
Are AV valves open or closed during ventricular systole (atrial diastole)? CLOSED
Are semilunar valves open or closed during vantricular systole (atrial diastole)? OPEN
What is the sequence of events of the cardiac cycle? (i.e. artial systole, isovolumetrics) Atrial systole Isovolumetric contraction Ejection Period Isovoumetric relaxation Ventricular Filling Atrial systole
what is the a-wave? atrial contraction
what is the c-wave? ventricular contraction
what is the v-wave? slow flow of blood into atria as AV valves are closed
Are Av valves opened or closed during ventricular diastole? Open
What causes the s4 heart sound? Contraction of the atria
In atrial systole which valves are open and which are closed? AV valves open, semilunar valves are closed
What causes the s1 heart sound? AV valves shutting at end of atrial systole/beginning of isovolumetric contraction.
When does isovolumetric contraction begin? When AV valves close due to greater ventricular pressure than atrial pressure after atrial systole.
What causes the ejection period? After ventricular pressure increase in isovolumetric contraction, semilunar valves open, and ventricles empty their contents.
What causes the s2 sound? semilunar valves shutting after ejection period, due to drop in ventricluar pressure and increase in pulmonic and aortic pressure.
When the semilunar valves close, which phase has began? isovolumetric relaxation
What phase does the dicrotic notch appear? isovolumetric relaxation
What is the dicrotic notch(incisura)? when the aortic valve closes
What is filling during isovolumetric relaxation? ATRIA... isovolumetric refers to the VENTRICLES... their volume is the SAME.
What happens with ventricular filling? AV valves open, and 70% of blood enters ventricles
What is the formula for cardiac output? Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume
What is stroke volume equation? End diastolic vol - End systolic vol
If you had a high end diastolic volume would the stroke volume increase or decrease? increase
if you had a high end systolic volume would the sv increase or decrease? decrease
what creates the 3rd heart sound? rapid filling of ventricles
End systolic volume is determined by what 2 factors? arterial pressure force of ventricular contraction
End diastolic vol is determined by what 2 factors? length of ventricular diastole venous pressure
What is Starlings Law? the force of ventricular contraction is determined chiefly by the length of the cardiac mm fibers.... what flows in must flow out
If the heart is stretched during filling the ___ the force of contraction and volume of blood pumped thru the aorta. Greater, Starlings law
What does increased sympathetic innervation to the heart increase? HR, SV, and therefore Co
What is Stokes-Adams syndrome? Sudden AV block, delays ventricle contraction, pt may faint, or die... Part of purkinje and distal av node become pace maker
In regards to ECG what is heart rate defined as? Defined as time from one R peak to the next R peak.
What dominates intrinsic spontaneous rate of SA node? sympathetic or parasympathetic? parasympathetic (Vagus)
What NTs do parasympathetics release on the heart? and sympathetic? parasympathetic: Ach sympathetic: epinephrine
Where is the vasomotor center located? in reticular area of medulla and lower pons
Created by: margaretrhager