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NWHSU Gross Anatomy 1 Quiz 2 MASH

origin of the psoas major muscle T12-L5
Origin of rectus femoris. anterior inferior iliac spine, ilium at upper rim of acetabulum
Origin of adductor longus. Anterior Pubis
Origin of the vastus lateralis. linea aspera of femur, greater trochanter of femur
Origin of vastus medialis. linea aspera of femur, intertrochanteric line of femur
Origin of the external oblique. Costal Cartilage of Ribs 5-12
Origin of the superior gemellus. ischial spine
origin of the quadratus femoris ischial tuberosity
Common origin of hamstrings. ishial tuberosity
Origin of the gastrocnemius. medial & lateral epicondyle of femur
Origin of the extensor digitorum brevis. anterior calcaneus
Insertion of the iliopsoas. lesser trochantor of femur
insertion of the rectus femoris. patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Insertion of pectineus. Pectineal line between the lesser trochanter & linea aspera of femur
Insertion of adductor longus. middle 1/3 of linea aspera of femur
insertion of the adductor brevis muscle linea aspera of femur, pectineal line of femur
Insertion of biceps femoris (be specific). head of fibula- lateral aspect, lateral condyle of tibia
insertion of the adductor magnus anterior head - adductor tubercle of femur, posterior head - linea aspera
insertion of fibularis longus base of 1st metatarsal on plantar surface, 1st cuneiform tarsal bone plantar surface
Insertion of fibularis brevis. base of 5th metatarsal, lateral surface
Discuss what functional reversal of origin and insertion means. Origin becomes moveable, the insertion is stabilized
The only CUTANEOUS clinical sign a patient presents is complete loss of cutaneous sensation below the knee, except for an area along the medial part of the leg. This would indicate injury specifically to the _________ nerve. Sciatic
the sciatic nerve contains fibers from these specific spinal cord segments L4-S3
the tibial nerve contains fibers from these specific spinal cord segments L4-S3
the common fibular nerve carries fibers from these spinal segments L4-S2
The sciatic nerve directly innervates what muscles biceps femoris (long and short head), semitendinosis, semimembranosis, Adductor Magnus-posterior head
The tibial nerve passes immediately deep to this muscle during most of its course in the leg. Soleus
the only muscular clinical sign a patient shows is involuntary inversion of the foot. This would indicate injury to the ___nerve superficial fibular
Nerve of the fibularis (peroneus) brevis. superficial fibular nerve
point at which the common fibular nerve is particularly vulnerable to injury neck of fibula
cutaneous branch of tibial nerve which supplies skin of the posterior calf sural nerve
Nerve of popliteus. tibial nerve
Nerve that "Unlocks" the knee joint. Tibial nerve
Nerve which passes along the medial side of the tendon of the biceps femoris, then curves around the neck of the fibula. Common Fibular
The only muscular clinical sign a patient presents is a slight involuntary eversion of the foot and total foot drop. This would happen if the _________nerve was cut or severely injured. common fibular nerve
specific nerve from which the sural nerve arises common fibular nerve
Nerve of tibialis anterior. deep fibular nerve
Innervation of the extensor hallucis longus. deep fibular nerve
Innervation of the extensor digitorum brevis deep fibular nerve
apart from muscular paralysis, injury to this specific nerve would present anaesthesia of the skin in the small area between the 1st and 2nd toes ONLY. deep fibular nerve
the tibial nerve terminates as the medial and lateral plantar nerve
femoral nerve carries fibers from these specific spinal cord segments L2-L4
Nerve that innervates pectineus. femoral nerve
Innervation of the sartorius muscle. Femoral Nerve
Name cutaneus branches of the femoral nerve. Medial & Intermediate cutaneous nerves , saphenous nerve
obturator nerve carries fibers from these spinal segments L2-L4
Innervation of adductor magnus. anterior head-Obturator Nerve posterior head-Sciatic Nerve
innervation of adductor longus obturator nerve
Nerve that transverses the adductor canal to provide cutaneous innervation to the medial side of the leg, ankle, and foot to great toe. saphenous nerve
Make a flowchart showing the simplest sequence of function of the nervous system. Stimulus->Sensory Neuron(Afferent)->Motor Neuron(Efferent)->Effector Organ
define irritability response to a stimulus with the initiation of a nervous impulse
List the basic motor functions of the nervous system. muscular contraction & glandular secretion
According to lecture, name the anatomical structures placed in the peripheral nervous system 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, autonomic nerves of the ANS
Define nerve. A group of neuron fibers located in the PNS
Specific components innervated by the autonomic nervous system. Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
List the GENERAL sensations. touch, temperature, proprioception, pressure, pain
List special sensations. Vision, Equilibrium & Hearing, smell (olfation), taste (gustation)
Assuming the sciatic nerve was severed, would any cutaneous areas below the knee still have sensation? If so where and why? Yes, skin of medial leg, ankle, foot to great toe would have sensation via saphenous nerve
Besides awareness/sensation of environmental changes and motor functions, give the remaining two basic functions of the nervous system. 1) coordination of the activities of various body structures 2) thought
Define a tract. group of neuron fibers in the CNS (nucleus is neuron cell bodies in CNS [nucleus-tract-CNS])
Define a ganglion group of neuron cell bodies in the PNS (nerve is a group of neuron fibers in PNS [ganglion-nerve-PNS])
The deep fibular nerve runs immediately anterior to this structure through most of its course (Do not list vessel). Interosseous Membrane
Name the muscles forming the 1st layer in the plantar foot. Abductor Hallucis, Flexor Digitorum Brevis, Abductor Digiti Minimi
Name the intrinsic muscles of the foot that form the 1st layer. abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi
Muscle that lies immediately deep to the adductor longus: it inserts on only a single landmark. adductor brevis
muscle which lies immediatedly deep to adductor longus adductor brevis
name the flexors of the knee biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus, plantaris, gastrocnemius
Define the perimysium. Connective Tissue which surrounds and holds groups (usually twelve) of endomysium wrapped muscle cells (a.k.a. fasicles, 1st thing visible to naked eye [muscle cell or fiber, endomysium, perimysium (about , epimysium, intermuscular septa, deep fascia] )
besides being external to the epimysium and sometimes fused to it, give two other characteristics of the deep fascia divides the muscles into functional compartments via the intramuscular septa, surrounds indivisual muscles and allows them to freely move against each other
specific muscle that is located on the dorsum of the foot and originates from the anterior calcaneus extensor digitorum brevis
Abdominal muscle that rotates the trunk to the opposite side. external oblique
Smallest fiber-like unit of a muscle visible to the naked eye. (do not say fiber as your answer) Fasicle
Muscle in which the common fibular (peroneal) nerve divides into its terminal branches Fibularis Longus
Name EVERTORS of the foot. Fibularis Longus, Fibularis Brevis, Fibularis Tertius
muscle which originates from the anterior distal fibula (with extensor digitorum longus)and iserts in to the base of the 5th metatarsal fibularis tertius
Name the muscles that form the 3rd layer of the plantar foot. flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, flexor digiti minimi brevis
Originates on the posterior fibula only and its tendon passes behind the medial malleolus. flexor hallucis longus
name the muscles whose tendons pass behind the medial malleolus. List them from posterior to anterior as they pass around the malleous flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, a tibialis posterior
Muscle which originates on the proximal ischial tuberosity and inserts on the medial greater trochanter. gemellus inferior
Lateral rotator of hip located immediately superior to the tendon of the obturator internus muscle. gemellus superior
Name the medial rotators of the hip. Gluteus Medius (anterior fibers), Gluteus Minimus, Tensor of Fasciae Latae, Adductor Magnus (anterior head), Pectineus
muscle innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve Gluteus Maximus
muscles which insert on the iliotibial tract Gluteus Maximus Tensor Fasciae Latae
name the medial rotators of the hip gluteus medius gluteus minimus tensor of fasciae latae adductor magnus-anterior head pectineus
Most superficial and medial thigh adductor. Gracilis
The strongest hip flexor. iliopsoas (iliacus & psoas major)
muscle which orginates on the proximal ischial tuberosity and inserts on the medial greater trochanter inferior gemellus
Component of deep fascia which arranges muscle into functional compartments. Intermuscular Septa
abdominal muscle that rotates the trunk to the same side Internal Oblique
Besides being external to the epimysium and sometimes fused to it, give 2 other characteristics of deep fascia. Invest Body Region provides intermuscular Septa, separates individual muscle into compartments to allow them to move freely
Considering that muscle volume remains constant, what can one say when comparing the range of strength of contraction of an unattached muscle. RANGE depends on fasicle LENGTH; STRENGTH depends on fasicle CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
name the muscles that form the 2nd layer of the plantar foot lumbricals, quadratus plantae
Assume you are constructing a body and want the strongest possible muscular performance across a particular joint. What would you do? multi-pennate muscle and attach it far away from the joint
Lateral rotator of hip only innervated by the obturator nerve. obturator externus
Name given to the connective tissue covering the smallest unit of muscle visible to the naked eye(don’t say fiber). Perimysium
Muscle which originates from the anterior surface of the sacrum and inserts into the upper part of the greater trochanter, Piriformis
muscle immediately superior to the sciatic nerve in the gluteal region Piriformis
Name the lateral rotators of the HIP as listed in the IEMA. Piriformis, Gemellus Superior, Obturator Internus, Gemellus Inferior, Obturator Externus, Quadratus Femoris, Gluteus Maximus, Sartorius, Adductor Magnus (posterior head)
Muscle that originates only from the lateral epicondyle of the femur and inserts into the calcaneous via the Achilles tendon. plantaris
Deepest muscle at the posterior knee. popliteus
invertor of the foot innervated by the tibial n. posterior tibialis
knee extensor and hip flexor innervated by the femoral nerve rectus femoris
name the medial rotators of the knee sartorius semitendinosus gracilis semimembranosus popliteus -when foot is not fixed on ground
Hamstring that inserts on the posterior medial tibial condyle semimembranosus
Muscle which originates on the ischial tuberosity and inserts on the anterior proximal tibial shaft. semitendinosus
considering that muscle volume remains constant. What can one say when comparing the range and strength of contraction of an unattached muscle they are inversely related
Dorsiflexor of the foot which inserts on the base of the 1st metatarsal and 1st cuneiform. tibialis anterior
Name invertors of the foot. Tibialis Anterior and Tibialis Posterior
Name the dorsiflexors of the ankle. tibialis anterior, extensor hallicus longus, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius
Invertor of the foot innervated by tibial nerve. Tibialis Posterior
a patient presents a sprained ankle caused by excessive inversion. give specific ligamentous damage. anterior talofibular ligament
Name the ligaments that run from the tibia to the lateral malleolus. Anterior Tibiofibular Ligament, Posterior Tibiofibular Ligament
A patient presents a sprained ankle caused by excessive eversion. Give specific ligamentous damage. Deltoid ligament
A ligament deep to the dorsal sacroiliac ligament, located in the deep groove between the sacrum and the ilium. interosseous sacroiliac ligament
Be able to identify from netter diagrams... Oblique Popliteal Ligament, Ischiofemoral Ligament and suprapatellar bursa
a patient is flat-footed due to flattening of the medial longitudinal arch. This would indicate what specific ligamentous damage plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
Name 2 important ligaments with attachments to the ischium and sacrum. sacrospinous ligament; sacrotuberous ligament
Define the superficial inguinal ring a gap in the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle
Specifically, what forms the anterior wall of the inguinal canal aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
Specifically what forms the important conjoined tendon. aponeurosis of transversus abdominis & internal oblique muscles
Give components which form the medial wall of the inguinal canal. Conjoined Tendon, Rectus Sheath
Portion of the spermatic cord derived from the internal oblique. Cremaster Muscle
portion of the spermatic cord derived from the internal oblique cremaster muscle and it's fascia
what structure anteriorly contribute to the rectus sheath above the level of the anterior superior iliac spine external oblique and one of two internal oblique
Portion of the spermatic cord derived from the aponeurosis of the external oblique. External Spermatic Fascia
Define the deep inguinal ring. Gap in the transversalis fascia
differentiate between the course of a direct and indirect inguinal hernia indirect hernia penetrates the deep inguinal canal and pushes its way through the superficial inguinal canal. Direct hernia's go straight down going around the conjoined tendon and eventually pushing it's way through the superficial inguinal canal.
name the component from which the cremaster m. is formed internal oblique muscle
forms the ROOF of the inguinal canal internal oblique transversus abdominus
specifically, what forms the important conjoined tendon internal oblique, transversus abdominus
define the structure of the deep inquinal ring represents a gap in the tranversalis fascia
what forms the posterior wall of the inguinal canal tranversalis fascia
Specific landmark where popliteal artery begins. adductor hiatus
artery which runs with the deep peroneal nerve anterior tibial artery
Artery which directly gives rise to most of the dorsal metatarsal arteries. arcuate artery
Name the DIRECT (immediate) branches of the dorsalis pedis artery. Arcuate Artery, 1st Dorsal Metatarsal Artery and deep plantar artery
How does the great saphenous vein become a tributary to the deep veins….include what it drains into and how it gains access to it. Collects from sole, dorsum of foot, and thigh and drains into the femoral vein via the saphenous hiatus (opening in the fascia lata)
Specific vessel supplying skin of the labia majora, perineum and scrotum. deep external pudendal artery
Arises from the arcuate artery. dorsal metatarsal aa & dorsal digital aa
name the vessels which help to form the cruciate anastomosis inferior gluteal artery, 1st branch of perforating a., medial femoral circumflex a., lateral femoral circumflex a.
In detail, how does the great saphenous vein become a tributary to the deep veins it arises from dorsal digitals, dorsal metatarsal and dorsal venous arch and travels up medial leg to the saphenous hiatus which is a gap in the fascia latae. it is then a tributary to the femoral vein
Artery that specifically supplies the adductors, obturator externus, acetabulum, and the head of the femur. Medial Femoral circumflex
Give 2 vessels which help form the cruciate anastomosis. Medial Femoral Circumflex, Lateral Femoral Circumflex, (other 2 -Inferior Gluteal and 1st Perforating Arteries)
Artery that gives rise to perforating arteries of thigh. Perfunda Femoris
Beginning with the popliteal artery, make a flow chart showing the course a drop of blood would mainly take to reach the lateral compartment muscles of the leg. popliteal artery, anterior tibial artery, fibular artery
Small saphenous vein is direct tributary. popliteal vein
the fibular artery is a branch of this artery posterior tibial artery
Artery of which the medial femoral circumflex is a direct branch. Profunda Femoris
Superficial vein which drains the lateral part of the foot and the posterior leg. Small Saphenous Vein
branch of femoral artery which parallels the inguinal ligament to supply skin in the area of the iliac crest superficial circumflex iliac artery
Give two vessels which help to form the cruciate anastomosis superior gleatal vessels inferior gleatal vessels
action of gluteus minimus abduction and medial of femur rotation of hip
Action of the gluteus medius. abduction of femur & anterior fibers - medial rotation of femur
List four actions of the sartorius muscle. abduction of hip flexion of femur lateral rotation of hip flexion of knee
Action of gluteus minimus. abduction, medial rotation of femur
Action of the gracilis across the hip joint. adduction of femur
action of fibularis longus eversion and plantar flexion of ankle
Action of peroneus (fibularis) tertius. eversion of foot, assists in dorsiflexion of foot
Action of the peroneus (fibularis) longus. Eversion of the foot, Plantarflexion of the ankle
Action of the semitendinosus across the hip joint. extension of femur
Two primary actions of the gluteus maximus. extension of femur, lateral rotation of extended hip
Action of pectineus. flexion and adduction of femur, assists medial rotation of femur
action of semitendinosus across the knee joint flexion and medial rotation
action of pectineus flexion of femur adductor of hip
List 4 actions of the sartorius muscle. flexion of femur, abduction of femur, lateral rotation of femur, flexion of knee, medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
Action of the rectus femoris. Flexion of Hip, Extention of knee
Action of the semitendinosus across the knee joint. flexion of knee joint
action of the rectus femoris muscle flexion of the hip and extension of the knee
List individual names and actions of the muscles collectively known as the triceps surae. Gastrocnemius: knee flexion plantarflexion of ankle Soleus: Plantar Flexion of ankle
Action of the Plantaris. Knee flexion, plantarflexion of foot
Function of popliteus muscle. Lateral rotation of femur to Unlock the knee, assists in medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
Action of soleus. plantarflexion of ankle
Action of gastrocnemius. plantarflexion of ankle & assists in flexion of knee
function of the popliteus muscle unlock the knee
___________ are SPECIFIC TYPE receptors used for smell and taste. They are classified functionally as ________ (use letter-classification) fibers. chemoreceptors, SVA
Are specific type receptors used, for example, as pain detectors in the skin they are functionally classified as (use letter). Exteroceptors - GSA
Give the functional 3 letter classification and name a proprioceptor. GSA-Golgi Tendon Apparatus or muscle spindles sense change in position of body
3 letter classification for pain caused by distention GVA, interoceptors
Name & Classify (use letter classification) the specific type of visceral receptor which deals with pain caused by distention. Interoceptor, GVA
Give the functional 3 letter CLASSIFICATION and name a proprioceptor muscle spindles, GSA
classify efferents to the muscles of facial expression. why are they classified as such SVE because they are from the brachial arches of embryo
Classify (use 3 letter classification)efferents to the muscles of the facial expression and mastication. Why are they classified as such? SVE, because they are the skeletal muscles of the branchial arches
classify -3 letter-efferents to the muscles of facial expression and mastication. Why are they classified as such? SVE, they come from the brachial arches in an embryo
Created by: AnatomyMash
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