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MLT Chemistry 3.2

MLT 3.2 Chemical Theory and Periodic Table 07010

Chemistry The science dealing with the composition and structure of matter, the properties of matter, the changes in matter, and the energy involved.
Branches of Chemistry 1.Physical Chemistry; 2.Analytical Chemistry; 3.Inorganic Chemistry; 4. Organic Chemistry 5. Biochemistry
Physical Chemistry The study of the physical laws of chemistry. (1. Mathematical explanation of events; 2. Has close relationship to physics; 3. Involves the gas laws; 4. Involves Thermodynamics and kinetics; 5. Works with the structures of atoms and molecules)
Analytical Chemistry The study of Qual/Quant analysis of matter. (1. Determines presence/absence of a substance; 2. Determines quantity of a substance; 3. Used in the Clinical Laboratory)
Inorganic Chemistry The study of non-carbon elements and compounds: (1. Properties of inorganic compounds; 2. reactivity of elements and compounds; 3. Formation of new substances)
Organic Chemistry The study of carbon containing molecules and compounds; ( 1. Characteristics and reactivity of carbon compounds; 2. More complex than inorganic Chemistry; 3. Sophisticated testing techniques/instruments)
Biochemistry Study of living organisms, the chemistry that supports human life
Matter anything that occupies space and mass
Mass The quantity of matter actually present
Volume the space a 3-dimensional object occupies
Density teh quantity of matter in a given space based on teh ratio of mass to volume (D=M/V)
Weight a measure of teh gravitational attraction for mass. ( can vary according to location)
Substance one of the millions of different types of matter found in teh world; Any substance can be classified as either an element or a compound
Element One of the 108 basic buliding blocks of all matter ( atom); 90 are naturally occuring on earth; 18 are man made in the laboratory
Compound form of matter in which 2 or more elements are held together in a fixed ratio by a chemical bond
Specific Gravity The ration of the mass of a solution to the mass of an equal volume of water at a specific temperature. (unitless)
Solution mixture if kiquids whose individual particles are uniformly dispersed throughout teh medium
True Solution composed of 2 distinct parts: 1. Solute, 2. Solvent
Solute the solid in a solid/liquid mix or the liquid in a lesser quantity or greater concentration in a liquid/liquid mix. (what your dissolving)
Solvent the liquid in a solid/liquid mix or the liquid in a greater quantity or lesser concentration in a liquid/liquid mix. (dissolving medium)
Law of Conservation of Energy in any ordinary physical or chemical reaction, energy is neither created, consumed, or destroyed. It merely changes from one form to another. (When thephysical or chemical changes takes place, teh mass of the matter present will remain the same; 10g )
Chemical Formula the shorthand representation of the atoms which make up an element, molecule, or compound
Classification of Matter All matter can be classified by it's physical stateand then further classified based upon the composition
3 Physical States 1. Solid, 2..Liquid, 3. Gas
2 Types of Composition 1. Homogeneous, 2. Heterogeneous
Homogeneous composition of matter is equal and constant throughout the sample and exist in one physical state only
Heterogeneous composition of matter is not uniform, equal or constant throughout the sample, matte exists in 2 distinct physical states
Solid 1. Crystalline- definite shape, smooth surface, sharp edges; Amorphous- indefinite shape, no regular form; definite volume; compact strong attraction of ions; very low compressibility; exert no sig. outward pressure
Liquid (1) definite volume; indefinite shape; not as compact as solids; Low compressibility
Liquid (2) (Intermolecular Force) (IF) attractive forces in a liquid that are strong enoug to maintain a liquid sample in a fixed shape; (Cohesive force- IF b/w like molecules; surface tension), (Adhesive Force- the IF b/w unlike molecules; water wets glass)
Gas Indefinite shape; Exert high vapor pressure; Diffused- very little attraction of atoms; Highly compressible; Indefinite volume (expand evenly); Force exerted called pressure or force per unit area (atm, PSI, mmHg=TORR)
Factors which affect the states of matter (1) 1. Melting; 2. Freezing; 3. Vaporization; 4. Evaporation; 5. Boiling
Melting change from solid to liquid; temp at which occurs is the "melting point"
Freezing change from liquid to solid, temp at which is the "freezing point"
Vaporization change from liquid to gas
Evaporation vaporization occuring at normal room temp
Boiling varies with a change in pressure of the liquid
Homogeneous Matter matter that is uniform, consistent and of equal ratio throughout; Can be divided into different forms of matter: ( 1. Elements, 2. Compounds, 3. Solutions)
Solutions are classified by Saturation; (1. Unsaturated, 2. Saturated, 3. Supersaturated)
Unsaturated Less solute than solvent is capable of dissolving
Saturated As much solute as solvent is capable of dissolving
Supersaturated More solute than is capable of dissolving at normal conditions
Heterogeneous Matter Mixture containing two or more phases or portions that precipitate (seperate); By convention mixtures are considered heterogeneous matter.
Typer of heterogenoeous mixtures 1. Solid/Solid ( Granite); 2. Solid/Liquid (sand in water); 3. Solid/Gas ( Smog or smoke); 4. Liquid/Liquid ( Oil in water); 5. Liquid/Gas (Steam or fog)
2 types of properties for matter 1..Physical properties; 2. Chemical properties
Physical properties Characteristics of a substance which can be observed or measured without altering the chemical compositon of the structure
Physical properties (examples) Melting point; Freezing point; Boiling point; Condensation point; Evaporation; Odor; Color; Density; Hardness (based on diamond scale); Crystal structure; Conductivity (electricity and heat); Ductility; Malleability; Solubility
Chemical Properties Observed or measured when an element/compound undergoes a change in chemical composition
Chemical properties (examples) Reactivity; Combustible; Supports/doens't support combustion; Bonding characteristics
Atom Basic structural unit of any element/compound; Smallest piece of an element that exist in nature (uncuttable)
Types of molecules or compounds that atoms form which are more stable than unbound 1. Diatomic: (2) atoms per molecule; 2. Triatomic: (3) atoms per molecule; 3. Polyatomic; (4) or more atoms per molecule
3 sub-atomic particles that atoms are composed of 1. Proton; 2. Neutron; 3. Electron
Created by: Nsikanete