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Government - E1 - P1

Government - Exam 1 - Part 1 - Chapter 3

QuestionAnswer
Unlike the government established by the Mayflower Compact, colonial charters derived their authority from? the British monarchs
What was an important outcome of Shay's Rebellion? The Constitutional Convention
The Founders did NOT all believe in what? the nature of representation
What power is exercised by the Supreme Court when it declares a federal law or presidential action as unconstitutional? judicial review
The ______ has NO part in any of the possible methods of amending the Constitution. President
Choosing a representative to stand for you in Washington is known as? Republicanism
What form did most of the revenue raised under the original Constitution take? import tariffs
Who was given the power to declare war under the Constitution? Congress
How many amendments have been made to the Constitution? 27
What topic was the most debated at the Philadelphia convention? representation
What is independent authority given to both states and the national government? Federalism
________ is a government of laws, not people, operating on the principle that governmental power must be limited and government officials should be restrained in their exercise of power over individuals. constitutionalism
______ is the legal structure of a political system, establishing governmental bodies, granting their powers, determining how their members are selected and prescribing rules by which they make their decisions. constitution
_______ was an agreement among pilgrim colonists to establish a government, setting the precedent of government by contract among the governed. Mayflower Compact
______ are documents granted by the English Monarch to individuals, companies, and groups of settlers in the new American colonies. colonial charters
______ was the original framework for the government of the United States, adopted in 1781 and superseded by the U.S. Constitution in 1789 The Articles of Confederation
The law that would govern humans in a state of nature before governments existed. natural law
The rights of all people derived from natural law and not bestowed by governments, including the rights to life, liberty and property. inalienable rights
_____ was responsible for the original concept of natural law. Aristotle
______ said that natural law is part of the law of God, knowable by human beings by their power of reason. Thomas Aquinas
______ said humans by nature are not only reasonable but social and that rules are natural to them -- those dictated by reason alone -- are those which enable them to live in harmony with one another. Hugo Grotius
How members of the house are there? 435
How many electors in the electoral college are there? 535
Absolute rule claiming the right to govern came directly from God. Divine Right of Kings
3 key figures in The Reformation: Martin Luther, Henry VIII, Pope Leo X
______ proposed separation of executive and legislative powers John Locke
______ proposed separation of judiciary in addition to executive and legislative Baron de Montesquieu
______ was a conservative in Parliament supporting the colonies Edmund Burke
______ wrote “Leviathan” (1651), and believed that a government’s power must be absolute. Thomas Hobbes
Wrote the Second Treatise on Government 1689 John Locke
______ states that people are [politically] free and equal by the God-given right to consent to the government which has authority over them. Social Contract Theory
A ______ is an agreement between the people and their government signifying consent to be governed. social contract
Puritans were also known as ______. Separatists
The first American legal code was ______ also known as ______. Lawes Divine, Moral and Martiall, Dale's Code
2 examples of proprietary charters given to an individual were ______. William Penn, Lord Baltimore
Royal charters were given to the colonists themselves in what 2 states? Connecticut and Rhode Island
______ was an age of the development of commercial industry and favorable balance of trade. Mercantilism
The phrase "no taxation without representation" was a response to the ________. Stamp Act of 1765
The Boston Tea Party was a response to the ______. Townshend Acts of 1767
The ______, also known as the Intolerable Acts, were a total blockade of Boston and the housing British troops. Coercive Acts of 1774
The General Assembly of Virginia consisted of Governor Sir ______, his __ concillors (the upper house), and ___ elected burgesses (the lower house) George Yeardly, 6, 22
The ______ consisted of Governor Sir George Yeardly, his 6 concillors (the upper house), and 22 elected burgesses (the lower house). General Assembly of Virginia
______ wrote Common Sense. Thomas Paine
The Declaration of Independence was authored by ______. Thomas Jefferson
The idea the government originates from an implied contract among people who agree to obey laws in exchange for the protection of their natural rights Social Contract
Government by representatives of the people rather than directly by the people themselves Republicanism
Belief that shared cultural, historical, linguistic, and social characteristics of a people justify the creation of a government encompassing all of them Nationalism
The resulting nation-state should be independent and legally equal to all other nation-states Nationalism
A government in which power is concentrated in the legislature, which chooses from among its members a prime minister and cabinet Parliamentary government
A constitutional plan that merged elements of a Virginia plan and a New Jersey plan into the present arrangement of the US Congress Connecticut Compromise
A compromise in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 between pre- and slave states in which slaves would be counted as three-fifths of a person for both taxation and representation. Three-Fifths Compromise
Compulsory payments to the government Taxes
Tax imposed on imported products (also called a customs duty) Tariff
Unified trade area in which all goods and services can be sold or exchanged free from customs or tariffs Common Market
The clause in Article VI of the US Constitution declaring the Constitution and federal laws “the supreme Law of the Land” superior to state laws and constitutions and requiring state judges to be bound thereby. National Supremacy Clause
proposed laws or constitutional amendments submitted to the voters for their direct approval or rejection, found in state constitutions, but not in the US Constitution Referenda
Constitutional division of powers among the three branches of the national government – legislative, executive and judicial Separation of Powers
Constitutional provisions giving each branch of the national government certain checks over the actions of other branches Checks and Balances
Power of the US Supreme Court and federal judiciary to declare laws of Congress and the states and actions of the president unconstitutional and therefore legally invalid Judicial review
Power of a legislature to approve or reject decisions made by other bodies. Ratification
______ or ______ must have the power to ratify constitutional amendments submitted by Congress. State legislators, state conventions
The US Senate has the power to ratify ______ made by the president treaties
The ______ has the power to ratify treaties made by the president US Senate
Opponents of the ratification of the Constitution, who later coalesced into a political party supporting Thomas Jefferson for president in 1800. Anti-Federalists
Written guidance of basic individual liberties; the first ten amendments to the US Constitution Bill of Rights
Powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution belonging to the national government Enumerated powers
Formal changes in a bill, law or constitution Amendments
Proposed amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing that equal rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex Equal Rights Amendment
The ______ was passed by Congress in 1972, the amendment failed to win ratification by three of the necessary three-fourths of the states. Equal Rights Amendment
What is the article, section, clause of the Elastic or Necessary and Proper Clause? Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3
What article, section, clause deals with the powers denied to the states? Article 1, Section 10
What article, section, clause outlines the presidential powers? Article 2, Section 2, Clause 1-3
What article, section, clause is the Supremacy Clause? Article 6, Clause 2
The first 10 amendments were written by ______. James Madison
What are 2 court cases which affirmed the 2nd amendment's right to bear arms? District of Columbia v. Heller, Chicago v. McDonald
What amendment protects citizens from quartering troops? 3rd amendment
What amendment protects against unreasonable searches? 4th amendment
What amendment provides for a grand jury; protects against double jeopardy; due process of law; compensation for confiscation of private property for public use? 5th amendment
What amendment? speedy and public trial; confront witnesses in court; legal counsel 6th amendment
What amendment? right to a jury trial in civil cases 7th amendment
What amendment? prohibits excessive bail, fines or cruel or unusual punishment 8th amendment
What amendment? Protects all other unspecified rights of the people 9th amendment
What amendment? reserves to the states or the people those powers neither granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states in the Constitution 10th amendment
The term ______ began in the administration of Richard Nixon (1969-1974) and the program of general revenue sharing continued into the Ronald Reagan administration. New Federalism
Created by: K1N1V