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Pathology Boards P.1

Pathology Boards Part 1

QuestionAnswer
an increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an INCREASE in SIZE of cells Hypertrophy
an INCREASE in NUMBER OF CELLS hyperplasia
failure of cell production aplasia
decrease in cell production hypoplasia
aplasia during fetal development agenesis
decrease in the mass of pre-existing cells atrophy
the replacement of one differentiated tissue by another metaplasia
complete disorganization of cells anaplasia
change in size, shape, or function of cells dysplasia
condensation of nucleus pyknosis
fragmentation of nucleus karryohexis
destruction of nucleus karylosis
sudden cut-off of blood supply (infarct), characterized as preservation of tissue structure (heart, kidney, adrenal gland) coagulative necrosis
digestion of tissue (ischemic injury to CNS) liquefactive necrosis
cheese-like consistency (tuberculosis) caseous necrosis
interruption of blood supply to an extremity or bowel gangrenous necrosis
accompanied by liquefactive necrosis secondary to bacterial infection wet gangrene
accompanied by coagulative necrosis due to arterial obstruction to an extremity dry gangrene
enzymatic necrosis (acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis) fatty necrosis
peripheral nerves die Wallerian degeneration
hyaline cartilage and/or skeletal muscle degeneration Zenker's Necrosis
too much melanin vitiligo
too little melanin alinism
iron containing pigment hemosiderin
accumulation of iron in tissue macrophages hemosiderosis
accumulation of iron in parenchyma hemochromatosis
yellowish breakdown product of lipid (wear n tear pigment) lipofuscin
Organ atrophy and lipofuscin deposition Brown atrophy
This is caused by hypercalcemia due to HPT, HV D, excess calcium intake (milk-alkali syndrome) Metastatic calcification
This occurs in damaged tissue (scarred heart valves, atherosclerotic lesions or old trauma, calcium level is normal) dystrophic calcification
accumulation of amyloid in tissues of insoluble fibrous protein (TB, osteomyelitis, leprosy) amyloidosis
These are produced by mast cells, basophils, platelets. they increase vascular permeability, vasodilate histamine
these are produced by platelets, mast cells, and increase permeability serotonin
produced by coagulative pathway, vasodilator, stimulates PAIN receptors bradykinin
released by phospholipids of cel membranes produces prostaglandins, leukotrienes and other mediators of inflammation arachidonic acid
common to central africa, assoc with epstein-barr virus, affects b-cells, starry sky appearance Burkitt's lymphoma
diagnosed by presence of reed-sternberg cells, painless lymphadenopathy hodgkin's disease
aka nephroblastoma, occur in children 2-4, often huge palpable flank mass (kidney area) Wilm's Tumor
ovarian cancer that has spread from the stomach, ovarian cells replaced by signet-ring cells krukenburg's tumor
fibroid tumor, M.C. tumor in women 20-40yoa uterine leiomyoma
aka sentinel or signal node, enlarged, firm supraclavicular lymph node, usually on left side (gastric carcinoma) virchow's nodes
adenocarcinoma of lung apex, causing pain and tingling over ulnar n. distribution, constriction of pupil and paralysis of levator palpebrae, due to pressure on brachial plexus (horners syndrome-ptosis, meiosis, anhydrosis) Pancoast Tumor
leukemia occurs in children Acute lymphatic lymphoma
leukemia occurs in all ages acute myelolymphoma
leukemia occurs in elderly men chronic lymphatic lymphoma
leukemia occurs in adult men (30yoa) chronic myelolymphoma
Trisomy 21, assoc with increased age of the egg causes severe mental retardation, epicanthal folds, simian crease, protruding tongue and congenital heart disease Downs Syndrome
due to deletion of short arm of chromosome 5 causes severe mental retardation, microencephaly, an unusual cat-like cry Cri du Chat Syndrome
trisomy 18, premature infany, hypoplasia of muscle, mental retardation edwards syndrome
results in high levels of LDL causing atherosclerosis and xanthomas Familial Hypercholestrolemia
manifestations delayed until 30-40yoa, progressively atrophy of caudate nuclei and putamen causeing choreiform movements and progressive dementia Huntington's Disease
defect of connective tissue, causing elongated arms, legs, arachnodactyly, dislocation of lens, ligamentous laxity, CV defects (aortic aneurysms and mitral valve prolapse) Marfan's Syndrome
acoustic neuromas, cafe au lait spots, and skeletal disorders Neurofibromatosis (von Reckinghausens, elephant man's disease)
malfunction of the pancrease that destroys the lung, exocrine glands produce viscous mucous interferes with absorption leading to steatorrhea and malabsorption (chronic pulmonary disease) Cystic fibrosis
karyotype 47,XXY(male), causes male hypogonadism, atrophic testes, gynecomastia, and tall stature Klinefelter's Syndrome (small kocks)
karyotype 45, X (f) causes female hypogonadism, primary amenorrhea, short stature Turner's Syndrome
karytype 47, XYY(male)causes tallness, severe acne, violent behavior XYY Syndrome
fragile area on X chromosome, secondary to downs syndrome causes hereditary mental retardation and bilateral macro-orchidism in male Fragile X Syndrome
deficiency of Factor VIII marked by hemorrhage from minor wounds, recurrent hemarthrosis Classic Hemophilia (Hemophilia A)
deficiency of factor IX christmas disease (hemophilia B)
accumulation of gangliosides in neurons Tay-Sachs Disease
accumulation of glucocerebrosides in monocytes Gaucher's Disease
accumulation of sphingomyelin lipids Nieman-Pick Disease
deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate Von Gierke's Disease
enzyme def, phenylalanine is not converted to tyrosine in liver PKU
enzyme def, phenyalanine and tyrosin are not completely broken down, leading to build-up of homogentisic acid causing ochronosis Alkaptonuria
motor function of coordination are lost, often presents as spastic syndrome, athetoid movements, hemi or paraplegia due to upper motor neuron involvement (scissors gait) Cerebral Palsy
congential elevation of scapula sprengel's deformity
multiple, congenital fusions of cervical vertebrae klipple-feil
congenital megacolon caused by absence of nerve plexus and ganglions hirschsprung disease
malformed cerebellum/medullary structures due to caudad traction of spinal cord. causes non-communicating hydrocephalus arnold-chiari malformation
excessive accumulation of csf, obstruction of 3rd and 4th ventricle hydrocephalus
caused by blockage of the absorption via arachnoid granulations communicating hydrocephalus
assoc with hutchinson's teeth and saddle nose deformities congential syphillis
failure of IVF to close, leaving an opening between right and left ventricles ventricular septal defect
vessel between left pulmonary artery and descending aorta is open (often in Rubella) Patent Ductus Arteriosus
foramen ovale can't close between 2 atria atrial septal defect
m.c. cyanotic anomaly, characterized as blue babies, dextrarotation of aorta, right vent hypertrophy, IN septal defect, pulmonary stenosis Tetralogy of Fallot
congenital narrowing of aorta coarctation of the aorta
Created by: DrDwin