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AP US History Final

terms for AP US History Final--ID

TermDefinition
Rock n' Roll mid-20th century, music fusing blck rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and country styles
Montgomery Bus Boycott mid-20th century, year-long boycott in Montgomery, Alabama that Rosa Parks started by refusing to give up a seat in the "whites only" section. It served notice throughout the South that blacks would no longer submit meekly to segregation
Jackie Robinson mid-20th century, U.S. baseball player who cracked the racial barrier in big-league baseball when the Brooklyn Dodgers signed him
Anne Hutchinson early 17th century-claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man--antinomianism. brought to trial and was banished for heresy
Boston Massacre late 18th century, further inflamed colonials against British, British troops acting apparently without orders but under extreme provocation, opened fire and killed or wounded eleven "innocent" citizens
King Philip's War late 17th century, King Philip forged a pan-Indian alliance and mounted a series of coordinated assaults on English villages throughout New England, slowed westward march of English settlement in New England for several decades
Horatio Alger mid-to-late 19th century, a Puritan-reared New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction, stock formula was that virtue, honesty, and industry are rewarded by success, wealth, and honor, a kind of survival for the purest
Turner Thesis late 19th century, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institutions; he maintained that the frontier served as a "safety valve" during periods fo economic crisis
Marbury v. Madison early 19th century, precedent-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshall dismissed a Federalist judge's suit but also declared art of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional; established principle of judicial review
Minute Men late 18th century, rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the revolution
Theodore Roosevelt late 19th to early 20th centurydiplomat, oralizer, wielder of the big stick, iperialist advocate, aggressive assistant navy secretary, Rough Rider, energetic progressive and vigorous nationalist who waged a third-party campaign once
Great Society late 20th century, LBJ's broad program of welfare legislation and social reform that swept through Congress and included Medicare, civil rights legislation, and the War on Poverty; funding for the programs suffered because of the costs of the Vietnam War
Emilio Aguinaldo late 19th to mid-20th century, leader of the Filipino insurgents who aided Americans in defeating Spain and taking Manila and Filipino leader of a guerilla war against American rule
Pearl Harbor late 19th and mid-20th century, valuable naval base acquired by the United States from the Hawaiian government that was destroyed in a surprise attack
John F. Kennedy youthful politician who combined TV appeal w/ traditional big-city Democratic politics to squeak out a victory and charismatic president whose brief administration experienced domestic stalemate and foreign confrontations with communism
Ku Klux Klan late 19th century and early 20th century, secret organization that intimidated blacks and worked to restore white supremacy, hooded defenders of Anglo-Sacon and "Protestant" values against immigrants, Catholics, and Jews
Know-Nothings mid 19th century, Anti-immigrant party headed by former President Fillmore that competed with Republicans and Democrats in the election of 1856
Zoot-Suit Riots early 20th century, riots that occurred in LA, California, during WWII between American sailors and soldiers, and young Mexicans.
Japanese Internment early 20th century, a forced removal of the Japanese Americans during WWII by the government. The majority was placed in hastily-built concentration camps. example of how rights of American citizens can be threatened
Hiroshima and Nagasaki early 20th century, two Japanese cities on which the first two atomic bombs were dropped by America. first time in history of mankind that atomic bombs were used in war. result was devastating, many anti-atomic bomb movements were started
Yalta Conference early 20th century, a major conference where the Big Three (Britain, USA, Soviet) discussed about the world after WWII. agreed upon the unconditional surrender of Germany, which would be split into four sectors before its reunification
Muckrakers late 19th to early 20th century, a group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics
Harlem Renaissance early 20th century, refers to flowering of African-American literature, art, and drama.
National Origins Act of 1924 early 20th century, U.S. federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of number of people from that country in U.S. in 1890, excluded immigration of Asians and placed no restrictions on Latin Americans
John Steinbeck early to mid 20th century, was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers, a winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, wrote Of Mice and Men & Pulitzer-prize winning Grapes of Wrath, both of which examine the lives of the working class
Bonus March early 20th century, an assemblage of about 31,000 WWI veterans, their families, & other affiliated groups who demonstrated in Washington, D.C. seeking immediate payment of a "bonus" granted by the Adjusted Service Certificate law, led by Walter W. Waters
Election of 1932 early 20th century, took place as effects of Stock Market crash and Great Depression were being felt intensely across country, Hoover's popularity failing, FDR used to his advantage and promoted New Deal policy, won by landslide
Fireside Chats early 20th century, a series of 30 evening radio talks given by FDR, who urged listeners to have faith in banks & support his New Deal measures. These were considered enormously successful & attracted more listeners than the most popular radio shows
Sacco and Vanzetti early 20th century, Italian-American anarchists whose trial and execution aroused widespread protest
The Red Scare early 20th century, a movement spawned by fear of Bolshevik revolution, that resulted in the arrest and deportation of many political radicals
Henry Ford late 19th to mid-20th century, Mechanical genius and organizer of the mass-produced automobile industry
Harvard University early 17th century, the oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry
Quebec Act late 18th century, actually a sensible piece of colonial legislation, gave French Canadians religious freedom and restored French form of civil law. linked by colonists to Intolerable Acts and seen as a sign of Britihs repression
Loyalists/Tories late 18th century, those who, despite their American birth, fought for King George and earned the contempt of Patriots
Lewis and Clark early 19th century, explorers who crossed the Louisiana Purchase territory and went on to Oregon and the Pacific coast
Compromise of 1877 late 19th century, Hayes got the presidency for U.S. troops to be withdrawn from the South
Watergate late 20th century, a series of scandals occurring during the Nixon administration in which members of the executive branch organized illegal political espionage against perceived opponents & were charged with many violations
Arab Oil Embargo late 20th century, Arab-sponsored restriction on energy exports after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War
GI Bill of Rights mid-20th century, Popular name for the Srvicemen's Readjustment Act, which proved assistance to former soldiers
Marshall Plan mid-20th century, American-sponsored effort to provide funds for the economic relief and recovery in Europe
NATO mid-20th century, the new anti-Soviet organization of Western nations, which ended the long-time American tradition of not joining permanent military alliances
Nat Turner early 19th century, visionary black preacher whose bloody slave rebellion tightened the reins of slavery in the South
Truman Doctrine mid-20th century, In response to the Greek Civil War in 1947, the U.S. provided economic & military aid to both Greece & Turkey. The U.S. would suport "free peoples" against armed minorities or outside pressure
Las Gorras Blancas a group active in American Southwest, believed in Mexican reclamation of land taken by Anglo farmers & used intimidation & raids to accomplish their goals
The Gospel of Wealth late 19th century, essay written by Andrew Carnegie that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
Chinese Exclusion Act late 19th century, an act forbidding the immigration of Chinese laborers into the U.S.
Plessy v. Ferguson late 19th century, established doctrine of "separate but equal" & upheld a Louisiana law mandating racially segregated but equal railroad carriages
Great Migration early to mid-20th century, African-Americans began to move to Northern cities in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South
Sherman Anti-Trust Act late 19th century, federal law intended to control or prohibit monopolies by forbidding certain practices that restrain competition. later, Supreme Court ruled that it only applied to unreasonable restraints of trade
Benjamin Franklin 18th century, diplomat, scientist, writer, printer, & political philosopher, invented bifocals, lightning rods, & Franklin stove. served in Second Continental Congress, & drafter/signer of Declaration, important in American Revolution
Election of 1800 TJ won by majority of 73 electoral votes to 65, election fell onto TJ because Burr turned NY to TJ by narrowest of margins, Republic passed major test when power peacefully transferred from conservative federalists to more liberal TJ
Charles Darwin 19th century, an English naturalist whose theory for the foundation of humankind laid the path for evolution, proposed natural selection
Marcus Garvey late 19th to mid-20th century, black-rights activist in the U.S.; advocated emigration of black Americans to Africa
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation early 20th century, insured individual deposits up to $5,000 (later raised) and ended the disgraceful epidemic of bank failures
Second New Deal early 20th century, focused more on less fortunate and did not count as much on the support of business; included Works Progress Administration and Social Security Act
Trench warfare mid-20th century, method of warfare used in WWI in whcih lines of opposing soldiers fired at each other from ditches
Federal Reserve Act early 20th century, act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the U.S.
Camp David Accords late 20th century, peace agreements between Israel & Egypt, negotiated by President Jimmy Carter
Iran-Contra Scandal late 20th century, U.S. government secretly sold weapons to Iran, using the profits to fund the contras in Iran
Pure Food and Drug Act early 20th century, prevented adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals
Boss Tweed late 19th century, American politician and head of Tammany Hall who was eventually imprisoned for stealing millions of dollars from the city through graft
Palmer Raids early 20th century, series of controversial raids by U.S. Justice & Immigration departments on the radical left in the U.S.
Berlin Airlift mid-20th century, a military operation that brought food & other needed goods into West Berlin by air after government of East Germany had cut off its supply routes
Immigration Restriction League late 19th to early 20th century, founded by a group of Bostonians who sought to make literacy a requirement for admission into the U.S.
John Muir mid-19th to early 20th century, U.S. naturalist who promoted creation of national parks and reservations
Panama Canal early 20th century, a ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama built by the U.S.
NYC Draft Riots late 19th century, a series of violent disturbances in NYC that were the high point of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing Civil War
English Reformation started in early 16th century, series of events by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman-Catholic Church
The Federalist Papers late 18th century, a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay to persuade the voters of New York to adopt the Constitution
Nullification crisis early 19th century, a sectional crisis during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson around the question of whether a state can refuse to recognize or enforce a federal law passed by the U.S. Congress. It provoked a debate over state's rights
"King Cotton" mid-19th century, a phrase used mainly by Southern politicians & authors who wanted to illustrate the importance of the crop to the Southern economy
Gold Rush mid-19th century, influx of merchants, adventurers, & others to newly discovered gold fields. one of most famous in CA, brought more than 40,000 prospectors to CA w/i 2 years. Although few struck rich, presence was important stimulus to economic growth
Horizontal integration late 19th century, absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production & sharing resources at that level
Vertical integration late 19th century, absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
NSC-68 mid-20th century, a 58 page classified report issued during the presidency of Truman, outlined actual national secuirty strategy of U.S. has become one of the classic historical documents of Cold War, shape government actions in Cold War for next 20 years
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) late 20th century, a U.S. civil-rights organization formed by students & active especially during the 1960s, whose aim was to achieve political & economic equality for blacks through local & regional action groups
Freedom Riders late 20th century, a group of northern idealists active in the civi rights movement, included both blacks & whites who rode buses into the South to challenge racial segregation
Malcolm X mid-to-late 20th century, American activist, member of the Black Muslims, he advocated separatism & Black pride. After converting to orthodox Islam, he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity & was assassinated in Harlem
Watts late 20th century, a district of Los Angeles, CA that was the scene of severe racial tensions & violence
NOW (National Organization for Women) late 20th century, a major feminist organization, founded when the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission failed to enforce a clause prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender, worked to promote occupational opportunites
Roe v. Wade late 20th century, legalized abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy, based on residential right of privacy, struck down dozens of antiabortion statutes, also gave states the right to intervene in 2nd & 3rd trimester to protect woman and child
Rachel Carson late 20th century, American marine biologist & writer whose best known book, Silent Spring, was an influential study of the dangerous effects of synthetic pesticides on food chains. Public reaction resulted in stricter controls on pesticide use
My Lai Massacre late 20th century, a mass killing of helpless inhabitants in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, carried out by U.S. troops, became a symbol for those who opposed the war
Reaganomics late 20th century, a popular term used to refer to the economic policies of Ronald Reagan, which called for widespread tax cuts, decreased social spending, increased military spending, & the deregulation of domestic markets
Gorbachev late 20th century, Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War & whose domestic policy introduced major reforms
Tiananmen Square late 20th century, location in Beijing of prodemocracy demonstrations that were brutally suppressed by troops loyal to the communist regime of the People's Republic of China
Powhatan Indians early 17th century, what the English colonists called all te local Indians. in reality, a few dozen small tribes
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement late 20th century, created a free-trade zone encompassing Canada, the U.S., & Mexico
Oklahoma City bombing late 20th century, a terrorist attack aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. gov't complex. claimed 168 lives & left over 800 injured, led to U.S. gov't passing legislation designed to increase protection around federal buildings
Axis of Evil early 21st century, used by Pres. George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address to describe governments that he accused of sponsoring terrorism & seeking weapons of mass destruction. North Korea, Iran, & Iraq were named
Bill Clinton late 20th century, first Dem. President since FDR to be elected to a 2nd term, presidency was marked by economic expansion & the 1st balanced federal budget in 30 years, impeached by House of Rep. on perjury & obstruction of justice but acquitted by Sen.
Bush v. Gore early 21st century, a U.S. Supreme Court case where the Court held that a ballot recount being conducted in certain counties in FL was to be stopped due to Equal Protection issues arising from a lack of a consistent standard across counties
Abu Ghraib prison scandal early 21st century, U.S. military tortured Iraqi detainees
SALT I late 20th century, limited anti-ballistic missile systems
Sandinistas late 20th century, members of a left-wing Nicaraguan political party
"Star Wars" late 20th century, term for Strategic Defense Initiative, purpose to develop a defensive "umbrella" over USA from incoming missiles
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan late 20th century, Soviets invade & install Babrak Kamal as a puppet Pres. The West, China, & India were alarmed and many boycotted '80 Olympics because of if
The Lost Generation early 20th century, term coined by Gertrude Stein which became symbolic of the lost energy & idealism & sense of betrayal felt by those who experienced the destructiveness of WWI (Hemingway, Fitzgerald)
Korean War late 20th century, war between the North (Communist) & South (Democratic). North attacked South so UN rushed to aid, in the end, the nations ended up remaining separated at the 38th parallel
1963 March on Washington a large political rally that MLK, Jr. delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech at. ~250,000 people took part in it, 1 of officially stated purposes was to support civil rights bill introduced by JFK administration
March to the Sea late 19th century, began with Sherman's troops leaving captured city of Atlanta, GA & ended with caputre of port of Savannah, objective to end Civil War by breaking Confederacy's strategic, economic, & psychological capacity for warfare
First Persian Gulf War late 20th century, began when Iraq invaded Iran following long history of border disputes & demands for overthrow of Hussein's regime. Iraqis attacked w/o formal warning but failed to make progress & soon repelled by Iranians.
Barbary Coast piracy early 19th century, pirate ships & crews from North African states of Tripoli, Tunis, Morocco, & Algiers captured merchant ships & held their crews for ransom
WJ Bryan late 19th-early 20th century, eloquent, free-silver spokesman who waged a dramatic but unsuccessful campaign for Pres. on issue of American imperialism in Philippines, & led fight against evolution at Scopes trial
Utopian Societies early 19th century, communities where all aspects of people's lives could be governed by their faith. best known are the Shakers
Settlement House Movement late 19th-early 20th century, became centers of women's activism & of social reform, vividly demonstrated truth that city waas frontier of opportunity for women
Election of 1912 fought among 3 major candidates, 2 of whom had previously held office; Taft-Republican, TR-Bull Moose Party, Woodrow Wilson-Democrat, Wilson won, last election in which a 3rd party candidate came in 2nd in the Electoral College
Muhammad Ali late 20th century, American heavyweight champion who converted to Islam, when drafted for Vietnam War, would not go because he was a "conscientious objector"
Enron Scandal early 21st century, an energy company was thought to be doing so well, when they admitted to accounting fraud, considered a safe stock--shares went from $90 to 30 cents/stock, has become a popular symbol of willful corporate fraud & corruption
Created by: sissiloo