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Political Science Ex

Ch 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 vocab

descriptive explaining what is
normative explaining what ought to be
realism working with the world as it is and not as we wish it to be; usually focused on power
social contract Theory that individuals join and stay in civil society as if they signed a contract
state of nature humans before civilization
civil society humans after becoming civilized
general will Rousseau's theory of what everybody in a community wants
proletariat Marx's name for the industrial working class
bourgeois middle class
superstructure Marx's term for everything that is built on top of the economy (law, art, politics, etc.)
institutions the formal structures of government, such as the US Congress
positivism Theory that society can be studied scientifically and incrementally improved with the knowledge gained
behavioralism empirical study of actual human behavior rather than abstract or speculative theories
thesis a main idea or claim, to be proved by evidence
cynical untrusting and suspicious, especially of government
secular not connected to religion
turnout percent of eligible who vote in a given election
subculture a minority culture within the mainstream culture
mainstream sharing the average or standard political culture
integration merging subcultures into the mainstream culture
marginalized pushed to the edge of society and the economy, often said of the poor and of subcultures
values deeply held view; key component of political culture
social class a broad layer of society, usually based on income and often labeled lower, middle and upper
salience literally, that which jumps out
noneconomic issues questions relating to patriotism, religion, race, sexuality, and personal choice
skewed a distribution with its peak well to one side
survey a public-opinion poll
sample those persons to be interviewed in a survey, a small fraction of the population
volatility tendency of public opinion to change quickly
honeymoon high support for presidents early in their terms
rally event occurrence that temporarily boosts president's support
gender gap tendency of American women to vote more Democratic than do men
subject one of the three general political cultures; feeling among citizens that they should obey authority but not participate much in politics
overt socialization deliberate government policy to teach culture
general public those citizens that doesn't know or care about much beyond their immediate concerns
parochial one of the three general political cultures; narrow, having little or no interest in politics
participant one of the three general political cultures; interest or willingness in taking part in politics
attentive public those citizens who follow politics, especially national and international affairs
socialization learning of culture
incumbent official who already occupies the office
elite media highly influential newspapers and magazines read by elites and the attentive public
mass media modern means of communication that reach very wide audiences
turnout percent of those eligible to vote
constituency people or district that elects an official
franchise right to vote
party ID long-term voter attachment to a given party
class voting tendency of a given social class to vote for a party that promotes its economic interests
voting bloc group with a marked tendency
polarization opinion fleeing the center to form 2 hostile camps
religiosity depth of religious conviction
retrospective voting voters choosing based on overall incumbent performance
face-to-face communication by personal contact
stump verb, to campaign by personally speaking to audiences
introspective looking within oneself
status quo keeping the present situation
oligopoly market dominated by a few big firms
wire service news agency that sells to all media
source who or where a news reporter gets info from
bandwagon tendency of front-runners to gain additional supporters
cross-pressured pulled between opposing political forces; said to produce apathy
adversial inclined to criticize and oppose, to treat with enmity
Created by: equidrewrox