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Pub. health

Principles, approaches, and initatives

QuestionAnswer
Definition of public health. what a society does to promote an environment that equips its members to be healthy--focuses on health and well-being
When did the "new public health" emerge in the US, and what was its focus? Emerged in the early 20th century and focused on health education, maternal and child health, and detection of unrecognized but treatable impairments
Name the top 10 achievements in public health in the 20th century. vaccinations to prevent disease, motor vehicle safety, safer workplaces, decrease in deaths from CVA's and CHD, safer/healthier food, healthier mothers/infants, advances in family planning, fluoridation of drinking water, rec. of health hazard of tobacco
What is the role of public health practitioners? finding solutions to current health problems, identify intervention to prevent dev. and spread of illness, and address behaviors that impact society
What is WHO's definition of health? "the complete state of physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and not just the absence of disease or infirmity"
What are WHO's prerequisites for health? peace, shelter, education, food, income, stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity
Define health promotion (according to Green and Kreuter, 1999) "any combination of educational and ecological supports for action and conditions of living conducive to health"
To what does community health refer? the physical, social, spiritual, emotional wellbeing of a group of people linked together geographically or by shared interests
Define prevention according to AOTA's framework. "promoting a healthy lifestyle at the individual, group, organizational, community, governmental/policy level"
What is primary prevention? interventions with health individuals, communities, and populations in order to decrease risk for potential health problems; examples: lifestyle redesign, falls prevention
What is secondary prevention? early detection and treatment of diseases and disabilities; examples: developmental screenings
What is tertiary prevention? interventions with people with disabilities or traumatized communities to prevent or minimize further dysfunction
Define wellness. "a dynamic way of life that involves action, values, and attitudes that support health or improve health and quality of life" (Brownson and Scaffa, 2001)
What are the steps in OT to implement a health promotion intervention? first: complete occupational profile; second: occupational performance analysis; third: development of occupation-based intervention
What is probably the single most important document in the history of health promotion? the Ottawa Charter
What are the five directions identified by the Ottawa Charter for reach the long-term goals for healthier communities? 1. Build healthy public policy 2. create supportive environments 3. strengthen community action 4. develop personal skills 5. reorient health services
What is occupational justice? promotion of occupational engagement for all members of society through equal access to all components of society through policy and public health initiatives
What is the ICF? standard, common language to describe health status and factors that influence health and wellbeing
Name top 10 leading health indicators. physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance abuse, responsible sexual behavior, mental health, injury and violence, environmental quality, immunization, access to healthcare
What is a healthy community? 1. provides access to preventative and clinical health services to all residents; 2. has a safe and health atmosphere; 3. has infrastructure to meet the needs of community members
What are healthcare disparities? "racial or ethnic differences in the quality of healthcare that are not due to access-related factors or clinical needs, preferences, and appropriate intervention" (IOM, 2003)
What are the three critical roles for OT in health promotion? 1. Promote healthy lifestyles for all clients; 2. emphasize occupation as an essential component of prevention strategies and health promotion; 3. expand OT interventions to expand clients beyond the individual
Why is OT so important in health promotion and disease prevention? "OT focuses on occupational capabilities, skills, habits, roles, and routines as well as its expertise in modifying environments for optimal occupational performance" (Reitz & Scaffa, 2010)
Created by: abascas