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Biochemistry 2 E2

Biochemistry 2 Palmer Exam 2

what are the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis 1)acetyl CoA carboxylase 2)fatty acid synthase 3)citrate lyase
what are the stimulants of fatty acid synthesis 1)high ATP 2)NADPH, NADH, FADH2 3)citrate 4)insulin
what inhibits fatty acid synthesis 1)AMP, ADP(low energy charge) 2)NADP, NAD, FAD 3)palmitoyl CoA 4)catecholamines, glucagon, ACTH, cortisol 5)malonyl CoA
what is the enzyme for glycogen synthesis glycogen synthase
what stimulates glycogen synthesis 1)glucose 6 phosphate 2)ATP(high energy charge) 3)insulin
what are the enzymes for gluconeogenisis 1)pyruvate carboxylase 2)glucose 6 phosphate 3)fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase 4)PEP carboxykinase
what stimulates gluconeogenisis 1)low blood glucose 2)glucagon 3)ATP(high energy) 4)pyruvate, lactate, alanine, OAA
what inhibits gluconeogenisis 1)high blood glucose 2)insulin 3)AMP, ADP (low energy charge) 4)fructose 2,6 bisphosphate
what is the function of GLUT 2 glucose, galactose & fructose -out of the intestine into blood -into the liver -insulin dependent
what is the function of GLUT 4 glucose into muscle and adipose tissue -stimulated by insulin -stimulated by low energy charge -facilitated diffusion
what are 4 main things to know about glucokinase -high Km -not inhibited by G6P -stimulated by insulin -in liver
what is the sequence for glucokinase 1)eat carbs 2)elevated blood glucose 3)elevated insulin 4)fat and muscle glucose transport 5)muscle full of glycogen so glycogen goes to liver 6)glucokinase 7)glycolysis runs 8)energy/raw material 9)fat building
what are 3 main things to know about hexokinase -low Km -inhibited by G6P -in muscle
where is fatty acid synthesis cytosol
what 2 molecules are needed to start fatty acid synthesis 1)acetyl CoA 2)malonyl CoA
fatty acid synthase CRDR Condenses (adds 2 carbons) Reduces (with NADPH) Dehydrates Reduces (with NADPH)
enzymes essential for fructose metabolism -fructokinase -triokinase
fructose skips what regulation of PFK
conditions that stimulate fatty acid synthesis 1)high energy 2)lots of acetyl CoA, NADH, FADH2, Citrate, sugar 3)insulin
what are the key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis -citrate lyase -acetyl CoA carboxylase -fatty acid synthase (CRDR)
H ! R-C-COOH ----> ! NH3 (amino acid) R-C-COOH !! O (keto acid)
what ends in -Cholate bile salt, steroid hormone
HMG CoA reductase is irreversible
where are bile salts made in the liver
HMG CoA ------> mevalonate what enzyme HMG-CoA reductase
storage form of glucose has what kind of bonds alpha 1,4 or alpha 1,6
what are 2 types of starch -amylose, alpha 1,4 -amylopectin, alpha 1,4 & 1,6
where would you store glycogen cytosol
where is glucose 6 phosphate only in the liver
glucose 6 phosphate is converted to glucose 1 phosphate by what enzyme phosphoglucomutase
what enzyme is used for UTP+glucose 1 phosphate ----> UDP-glucose UDP-glucose pyrophorylase
what enzyme is used to add glucose to glycogenin glycogen initiator synthase
what enzyme is used to add more glucose to the chain of glycogenin glycogen synthase
when glucose 1 phosphate is converted to glucose 6 phosphate what enzyme is used phosphoglucomutase
what breaks down glycogen glycogen phosphorylase
what 2 enzymes are required for cutting down branches of glycogen -glucosyl(4:4) transferase -amylo-alpha-(1,6)-glucosidase
what regulates the pathway from glycogen to glucose 1 phosphate 1)low ATP 2)lots of ADP/AMP 3)low glucose 4)glucagon 5)muscle contraction(calcium)
what regulates the pathway from glucose 1 phosphate to glycogen 1)lots of ATP 2)lots of glucose 3)insulin 4)low glycogen levels
what is the most potent stimulator of glycogen synthase glycogen levels in muscle
what are the enzymes used in glycogen synthesis 1)hexokinase/glucokinase 2)phosphoglucomutase 3)UDP glucose pyrophorylase 4)pyrophosphotase 5)glycogen initiator synthase 6)glycogen synthase 7)glucosyl 4:6 transferase
what enzymes are used for glycogen breakdown 1)glycogen phosphorylase 2)phosphoglucomutase 3)glucosyl (4:4) transferase 4)amylo-alpha-(1,6)-glucosidase
glycogen phosphorylase(liver) during exercise is running faster why? -muscle contraction uses ATP -muscle low energy charge -muscle stimulates PC, glycolysis, kreb's, electron transport chain -glycogen breakdown -muscle consumes glucose from blood -blood glucose is low -secretes glucagon
liver energy charge increases during exercise glycogen synthase=inhibit glycogen phosphorylase=stimulate gluconeogenesis=stimulate glycolysis=inhibit
what happens when you eat sugar and you are resting -increase blood glucose -increase insulin -increase [glucose] in cells -stimulate glycolysis -stimulate glycogen synthesis -stimulate fat synthesis
what is gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors
what are the main entry points into gluconeogenesis -pyruvate -oxaloacetate -DHAP
what are the main non-carbohydrate precursors for gluconeogenesis -lactic acid -amino acid -glycerol
where is gluconeogenesis taking place liver 90% and kidney 10%
what enzymes are responsible for the irreversible reactions of glycolysis 1)hexokinase 2)phosphofructokinase 3)pyruvate kinase
what are the enzymes for glycolysis -glucokinase -phosphofructokinase -pyruvate kinase
what are the enzymes for gluconeogenesis -glucose 6 phosphate -fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxykinase
liver takes up lactic acid and creates glucose
what is the primary source of glucose from gluconeogenesis at rest alpha ketoacids
what is the corresponding alpha ketoacid with alanine pyruvate
what is the corresponding amino acid with pyruvate alanine
what are the 3 common ketones -acetoacetate -beta hydroxybutyrate -acetone
which would inhibit ketone body formation -glucose -carbs
what is the cheerleader for glycolysis, and what does it do fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, activates PFK in the liver
what is the exercise sequence for gluconeogenesis 1)low energy charge 2)+ glycogen breakdown,glycolysis,kreb's, glucose entry in the muscle 3)lower blood glucose 4)secrete glucagon 5)+glycogen breakdown in liver 6)-glycogen synthesis in liver 7)slows glycolysis in liver 8)+ gluconeogenesis in live
what is the cori cycle muscle-lactate-GNG in liver-glucose
what is the glucose alanine cycle muscle-alanine-GNG in liver-glucose
what are the steps for the cori cycle 1)exercis lowers blood glucose 2)glucagon secreted 3)muscle releases lactate 4)lactate goes to liver becomes glucose 5)GNG + by glucagon 6)lactate turned into pyruvate 7)pyruvate turned into glucose 8)glucose goes into blood 9)muscle gets glucose
what are the steps for the glucose alanine cycle 1)during exercise 2)glycolysis runs fast 3)AA enters krebs 4)pyruvate from glycolysis takes amino group 5)pyruvate + NH3-->alanine 6)alanine goes to liver,pyruvate turns to glucose, NH3 turns to urea 7)alanine-->pyruvate + NH3
where is pyruvate carboxylase mitochondrial matrix
what is NOT gluconeogenic fatty acid
what is stolen from the krebs cycle to make glucose during ketosis oxaloacetate
what is the name of the protein that glycogen attaches to glycogenin
low blood sugar, what is stimulated pyruvate carboxylase & glycogen phosphorylase
Created by: ellerjason12
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