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USMLE - CNS Pharmacology, Kaplan Pharmacology

describe the flow of Na and K during membrane depolarization (excitation) Na influx, K efflux minimal
describe the flow of Cl and K during membrane hyperpolarization (inhibition) Cl influx, max K efflux
what drug should you give to epileptic person who is pregnant? phenobarbital
drugs to give person with partial simple, partial complex, or general tonic/clonic seizures CVP - carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenytoin
drug for absence seizures ClEV - valproic acid, ethosuxamide, clonazepam
what primary DOC would you give to someone with myoclonic seizures valproic acid
what is the only type of seizure in which you wouldn't give valproic acid? status epilepticus
what is DOC for trigeminal neuralgia? carbamazepine
what is the only condition that ethosuximide is used for? absence seizures
what is the mechanism and location of methamphetamine addiction? methamphetamine induces dopamine release; dopamine is part of reward system of brain; ventral tegmental area of midbrain to nucleus accumbens of forebrain.
what is REM rebound and when does it happen? some drugs like barbiturates and MAO inhibitors decrease the amount of REM sleep. When person discontinues the drug, the body compensates for the missed REM sleep and patient has increase number and intensity of dreams for several days.
what is the formula for the confidence interval of the mean? mean +/- 2(SD/SQRT of sample size)
HTN and peptic ulcers are most commonly associated with what? panic disorder - person thinks they're having a heart attack
depression, alcohol, phobias, and PTSD associated with what? psychiatric diagnoses
what drug should be used for OCD? clomipramine
what is clomipramine? tricyclic antidepressant, can be used for OCD
what is the mechanism of imipramine? inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and NE
what is a common CNS complication of general anesthesia and surgery? delirium
tetrodotoxin - what is the mech? puffer fish toxin- binds to ready state of Na channels in cardiac and nerve cells --> prevents Na influx and conduction!
saxitoxin - what is the mech? dinoflagellates in "red tide" toxin- binds to ready state of Na channels in cardiac and nerve cells --> prevents Na influx and conduction!
ciguatoxin - what is the mech? Moray eel and exotic fish; bind to Na channels and keeps it open --> persistent depolarization
batrachotoxin - what is the mech? South American frogs; bind to Na channels and keeps it open --> persistent depolarization
muscle relaxant associated with malignant hypertermia d-tubocurarine and succinyl choline
what is malignant hyperthermia? drastic uncontrolled inc in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism which overwhelms the body's capacity to supply O2, remove CO2, and regulate T, eventually leading to circulatory collapse and death; muscl rigidity, hypermetabolic state, increased O2 consum
first pair of lymph nodes from which the testes drain para-aortic - from where the testes originated before they descended into the scrotum
Created by: christinapham