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U.S History

Reconstruction program brought up by the federal government between 1865 and 1877 to repair damage to the south caused by the civil war and restore the southern states to the union
Popular Sovereignty The People Rule , democracy
Limited Government The government is limited by the law
Federalism The division of power between the state and national government
Separation Of Powers Executive branch,Legislative branch , Judicial branch
Checks and balances gives each branch of the national governments ways to check , or control,the other branches witch prevents too much power to one branch
Flexibility features of the constitution that have made it possible for the document to meet changing conditions
Spoils System government given jobs
black codes laws that restricted African Americans rights and opportunities
First Constitution The Articles Of Confederation
Administration staff of executive branch
Precedent act or statement that becomes an example rule or tradition to be followed
Cabinet group of senior officials appointed by the president that heads the executive department and advises the president
Federal National
Shays Rebellion Farmers rebellion led by denial shays against higher taxes in Massachusetts
Ratification Official Approval
Federalist One who favored ratification of the constitution
Anti-Federalist One who was against ratification of the constitution
Bill of rights First ten amendments to the constitution;written list of freedoms guaranteed to citizens by the government
cash crops grown for sale
staple crops that are in good demand
Magna Carta English document from 1215 that limited the power of the king and provided basic right to citizens
Non importation Agreement Colonial consumer boycotts of British exports as a response to taxes passed by parliament
13th amendment abolished slavery
15th amendment guaranteed voting rights
14th amendment defined citizenship and equal protection rights
Tenant farming system in witch a farmer paid rent to a landowner for the use of the land
Enforcement Acts 1870 and 1871 laws that made it a federal offense to interfere with a citizens rights to cook
Freedman Bureau Federal agency designed to aid freed laves and poor white farmers in the south after the civil war
Radical Republican Congressman who advocate full citizenship rights for African Americans along with a harsh reconstruction policy toward the south
Integration Bringing people of different races,religions,and social classes together
Scalawag Negative term for a southern white who supported the republican party after the civil war
Carpetbagger Negative term for northerners who moved to the south after the civil war
Impeach Accusation against a public official of wrong doing in office
Redeemer Term for white southern democrats who returned to power after 1870
Compromise of 1877 Agreement by witch Rutherford B. Hayes won the 1876 presidential election and in exchange agreed to remove the remaining federal troops from the south
Solid South Returning the south back to the democrats after the civil war and ended reconstruction
Tenure of office act stated that the president could not remove officials appointed with the senates consent unless the senate agreed to their removal
Blockade military tactic in witch a navy presents vessels from entering or leaving its enemy's ports
Anaconda Plan Northern civil war strategy to starve the south by blockading seaports and controlling the mississippi river
Border State states that allowed slavery but remained in the union
Shiloh 1862 civil war battle where nearly 25,000 union and confederate troops were killed or wounded
Contraband supplies captured from an enemy during wartime
Emancipation Proclamation decree by president Lincoln the freed enslaved people living in confederate states still in rebellion
Antietam 1866 civil war battle in witch 23,000 troops were killed or wounded in one day
Militia Act 1862 law that allowed African American soldiers to serve in the union military
54th Massachusetts Regiment More than 180,000 African American volunteers had served in the union military
Homestead Act 1862 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for 5 years
Conscription drafting of citizens into military service
Copperhead negative term given to antiwar northern democrats during the civil war
Habeas Corpus Constitutional guaranteed that no one can be held in prison without charges being field
inflation raising prices
income tax tax that must be paid by individuals and corporations based on money earned
siege military tactic in which an enemy is surround and all supplies are cut off in an attempt to force a surrender
Total War military strategy in which an army attacks not only enemy troops but the economic and civilian resources that support them
Poll Tax Tax imposed on every voter in the south those who could not afford the tax did not vote
Literacy Test required citizens to prove they could read and write before they could vote
Grandfather Clause Allowed the cons or grandsons of those who were eligible to vote in 1867 to vote even if he could neither pay the tax or pass the test
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court ruling that said "seperate but equal made segregation legal" is ok made jim crow laws legal(Segregation laws)
McCullough v. Maryland Upholds the use of the elastic clause ,federal supremacy over a state
Purposes of the deceleration of independence a)to announce to the world that colonies were independent b)to explain and justify why the colonies had declared independence
Three key idead of the decleration of independence a)natural right b)government by consent of the governed c)right to over throw the government if it dosent protect the rights
loose construstion belief that the government has any power not forbidden by the constitution
Tariff tax on imported goods
strict construction belief that the government is limited to powers clearly stated in the constitution
Whiskey Rebellion 1794 uprising in western Penn that opposed the federal excise tax on whiskey
political party organization of people who vote for the winner elections and hold public office in order to shape government policy
democratic republican led by Jefferson , one of the first political parties in the united states
Bicameral Legislature Law making body made up of two houses
NW Ordinance of 1787 law which provided a basis for governing the northwest territory
Alexander Hamilton helped win the ratification vote in new york . thought the average person was stupid
James Madison wrote 29 of the federalist papers , elected to the connection to ratify the constitution that he played a large role in creating helped , frame the bill of rights
Great Compromise compromise between the Virgina and new jersey plans for a bicameral legislature , each state would have equal representation in the senate and varied representation in the house of representatives based on the states population
electoral college group of persons chosen from each state to in directly elect the president and vice president
mayflower compact consent of the governed
Petition of rights law that developed from traditional and court decisions;formed the basis of American law
Democracy government by the people
Republic representatives elected by voters
Baron DE Montesquieu separation of powers
Judicial Branch interprets the laws
Executive Branch Carries out the laws
Legislative Branch Makes the laws
Negative effects of urban growth 1.Housing;multifamily buildings called tenements 2.Health;urban crowding helped spread disease
Positive effects of urban growth 1.New technology 2.Cultural advances 3.politics
Social Classes 1.wealthy lived in mansion(conspicuous consumption) 2.Middle class professionals 3.workers and poor. slums and tenements
Urbanization resulted from Industrialization
Industrialization and new building technologies triggered an explosion of urban growth that brought Social Changes
Urban City
Rural Country
Cultural Advances Museum , theaters,parks.mass-circulation
Horatio Algar "Rags to Riches"
Leader Of Knights of labor Uriah Smith Stephens Terence V.Powderly
Leader Of AFL Samuel Gompers
Leader of Railway Workers Eugene V. Deds
Railway Workers Pullman strike
Railway Workers Railroad strike of 1877
AFL Bread and butter union
AFL Homestead strike of 1892
Knights of labor Haymarket square of 1886
The age of invention Industrialization
Munn v. Illinois states could regulate business affected with a public interest
Sherman Antitrust act outlawed monopolies
Henry ford assembly line and higher wages
JP Morgan finance for railroads and steel
JD Rockefeller oil refining business , used ruthless business method to eliminate competition formed at the first trust
Andrew Carnegie steel industry,sought to control all aspects of steel making using horizontal integration
Trust me I am a ... Monopoly
Trusts Group of corporations under a single board of trustees
Created by: zholme54
Popular U.S. History sets




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